by Keyword: implant

Garcia-de-Albeniz N, Ginebra MP, Jimenez-Piqué E, Roa JJ, Mas-Moruno C, (2023). Influence of nanosecond laser surface patterning on dental 3Y-TZP: Effects on the topography, hydrothermal degradation and cell response Dental Materials , S0109-4

Laser surface micropatterning of dental-grade zirconia (3Y-TZP) was explored with the objective of providing defined linear patterns capable of guiding bone-cell response.A nanosecond (ns-) laser was employed to fabricate microgrooves on the surface of 3Y-TZP discs, yielding three different groove periodicities (i.e., 30, 50 and 100 µm). The resulting topography and surface damage were characterized by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy techniques were employed to assess the hydrothermal degradation resistance of the modified topographies. Preliminary biological studies were conducted to evaluate adhesion (6 h) of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) to the patterns in terms of cell number and morphology. Finally, Staphylococcus aureus adhesion (4 h) to the microgrooves was investigated.The surface analysis showed grooves of approximately 1.8 µm height that exhibited surface damage in the form of pile-up at the edge of the microgrooves, microcracks and cavities. Accelerated aging tests revealed a slight decrease of the hydrothermal degradation resistance after laser patterning, and the Raman mapping showed the presence of monoclinic phase heterogeneously distributed along the patterned surfaces. An increase of the hMSC area was identified on all the microgrooved surfaces, although only the 50 µm periodicity, which is closer to the cell size, significantly favored cell elongation and alignment along the grooves. A decrease in Staphylococcus aureus adhesion was observed on the investigated micropatterns.The study suggests that linear microgrooves of 50 µm periodicity may help in promoting hMSC adhesion and alignment, while reducing bacterial cell attachment.Copyright © 2023 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

JTD Keywords: Antibacterial, Cell adhesion, Dental implants, Hydrothermal degradation, Laser patterning, Osseointegration, Surface topography, Zirconia

Gómez SG, Guillem-Marti J, Martín-Gómez H, Mas-Moruno C, Ginebra MP, Gil FJ, Barraquer RI, Manero JM, (2023). Titanium Boston keratoprosthesis with corneal cell adhesive and bactericidal dual coating Biomaterials Advances 154, 213654-213654

The Boston keratoprosthesis (BKPro) is a medical device used to restore vision in complicated cases of corneal blindness. This device is composed by a front plate of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and a backplate usually made of titanium (Ti). Ti is an excellent biomaterial with numerous applications, although there are not many studies that address its interaction with ocular cells. In this regard, despite the good retention rates of the BKPro, two main complications compromise patients' vision and the viability of the prosthesis: imperfect adhesion of the corneal tissue to the upside of the backplate and infections. Thus, in this work, two topographies (smooth and rough) were generated on Ti samples and tested with or without functionalization with a dual peptide platform. This molecule consists of a branched structure that links two peptide moieties to address the main complications associated with BKPro: the well-known RGD peptide in its cyclic version (cRGD) as cell pro-adherent motif and the first 11 residues of lactoferrin (LF1-11) as antibacterial motif. Samples were physicochemically characterized, and their biological response was evaluated in vitro with human corneal keratocytes (HCKs) and against the gram-negative bacterial strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The physicochemical characterization allowed to verify the functionalization in a qualitative and quantitative manner. A higher amount of peptide was anchored to the rough surfaces. The studies performed using HCKs showed increased long-term proliferation on the functionalized samples. Gene expression was affected by topography and peptide functionalization. Roughness promoted α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) overexpression, and the coating notably increased the expression of extracellular matrix components (ECM). Such changes may favour the development of unwanted fibrosis, and thus, corneal haze. In contrast, the combination of the coating with a rough topography decreased the expression of α-SMA and ECM components, which would be desirable for the long-term success of the prosthesis. Regarding the antibacterial activity, the functionalized smooth and rough surfaces promoted the death of bacteria, as well as a perturbation in their wall definition and cellular morphology. Bacterial killing values were 58 % for smooth functionalised and 68 % for rough functionalised samples. In summary, this study suggests that the use of the dual peptide platform with cRGD and LF1-11 could be a good strategy to improve the in vitro and in vivo performance of the rough topography used in the commercial BKPro.Copyright © 2023 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

JTD Keywords: Boston keratoprostheses, Corneal blindness, Dual coating, Peptide platform, Titanium implant

Mutreja I, Lan C, Li Q, Aparicio C, (2023). Chemoselective Coatings of GL13K Antimicrobial Peptides for Dental Implants Pharmaceutics 15, 2418

Dental implant-associated infection is a clinical challenge which poses a significant healthcare and socio-economic burden. To overcome this issue, developing antimicrobial surfaces, including antimicrobial peptide coatings, has gained great attention. Different physical and chemical routes have been used to obtain these biofunctional coatings, which in turn might have a direct influence on their bioactivity and functionality. In this study, we present a silane-based, fast, and efficient chemoselective conjugation of antimicrobial peptides (Cys-GL13K) to coat titanium implant surfaces. Comprehensive surface analysis was performed to confirm the surface functionalization of as-prepared and mechanically challenged coatings. The antibacterial potency of the evaluated surfaces was confirmed against both Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus mutans, the primary colonizers and pathogens of dental surfaces, as demonstrated by reduced bacteria viability. Additionally, human dental pulp stem cells demonstrated long-term viability when cultured on Cys-GL13K-grafted titanium surfaces. Cell functionality and antimicrobial capability against multi-species need to be studied further; however, our results confirmed that the proposed chemistry for chemoselective peptide anchoring is a valid alternative to traditional site-unspecific anchoring methods and offers opportunities to modify varying biomaterial surfaces to form potent bioactive coatings with multiple functionalities to prevent infection.

JTD Keywords: Antimicrobial peptide, Biocompatibility, Dental implants, Surface coating, Titanium

Raptopoulos, M, Fischer, NG, Aparicio, C, (2023). Implant surface physicochemistry affects keratinocyte hemidesmosome formation Journal Of Biomedical Materials Research Part a 111, 1021-1030

Previous studies have shown hydrophilic/hydrophobic implant surfaces stimulate/hinder osseointegration. An analogous concept was applied here using common biological functional groups on a model surface to promote oral keratinocytes (OKs) proliferation and hemidesmosomes (HD) to extend implant lifespans through increased soft tissue attachment. However, it is unclear what physicochemistry stimulates HDs. Thus, common biological functional groups (NH2 , OH, and CH3 ) were functionalized on glass using silanization. Non-functionalized plasma-cleaned glass and H silanization were controls. Surface modifications were confirmed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and water contact angle. The amount of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and fibrinogen, and BSA thickness, were assessed to understand how adsorbed protein properties were influenced by physicochemistry and may influence HDs. OKs proliferation was measured, and HDs were quantified with immunofluorescence for collagen XVII and integrin β4. Plasma-cleaned surfaces were the most hydrophilic group overall, while CH3 was the most hydrophobic and OH was the most hydrophilic among functionalized groups. Modification with the OH chemical group showed the highest OKs proliferation and HD expression. The OKs response on OH surfaces appeared to not correlate to the amount or thickness of adsorbed model proteins. These results reveal relevant surface physicochemical features to favor HDs and improve implant soft tissue attachment.© 2023 The Authors. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A published by Wiley Periodicals LLC.

JTD Keywords: attachment, chemistry, collagen, differentiation, epithelial-cells, hemidesmosome, implant, in-vitro, integrin, keratinocyte, mechanism, organosilane, physicochemistry, protein adsorption, Attachment, Cell-adhesion, Physicochemistry

Sergi Rey-Viñolas, Laura Valls-Lacalle, Soledad Pérez-Amodio, Oscar Castaño, Miguel Angel Mateos-Timoneda, Elisabeth Engel, (2023). Biodegradable and bioactive personalized implant for guided bone regeneration (94238135204) Tissue Engineering Part a 29, 177-178

Lanzalaco S, Weis C, Traeger KA, Turon P, Alemán C, Armelin E, (2023). Mechanical Properties of Smart Polypropylene Meshes: Effects of Mesh Architecture, Plasma Treatment, Thermosensitive Coating, and Sterilization Process Acs Biomaterials Science & Engineering 9, 3699-3711

Smart polypropylene (PP) hernia meshes were proposed to detect surgical infections and to regulate cell attachment-modulated properties. For this purpose, lightweight and midweight meshes were modified by applying a plasma treatment for subsequent grafting of a thermosensitive hydrogel, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm). However, both the physical treatment with plasma and the chemical processes required for the covalent incorporation of PNIPAAm can modify the mechanical properties of the mesh and thus have an influence in hernia repair procedures. In this work, the mechanical performance of plasma-treated and hydrogel-grafted meshes preheated at 37 °C has been compared with standard meshes using bursting and the suture pull out tests. Furthermore, the influence of the mesh architecture, the amount of grafted hydrogel, and the sterilization process on such properties have been examined. Results reveal that although the plasma treatment reduces the bursting and suture pull out forces, the thermosensitive hydrogel improves the mechanical resistance of the meshes. Moreover, the mechanical performance of the meshes coated with the PNIPAAm hydrogel is not influenced by ethylene oxide gas sterilization. Micrographs of the broken meshes evidence the role of the hydrogel as reinforcing coating for the PP filaments. Overall, results confirm that the modification of PP medical textiles with a biocompatible thermosensitive hydrogel do not affect, and even improve, the mechanical requirements necessary for the implantation of these prostheses in vivo.

JTD Keywords: biomaterials, bursting test, etox sterilization, hernia repair, hydrogels, infection, poly(n-isopropylacrylamide), pull outtest, surgical mesh, Abdominal-wall, Biomedical implant, Bursting test, Etox sterilization, Poly(n-isopropylacrylamide), Pull out test, Surgical mesh

Rodríguez-Contreras, Alejandra, Torres, Diego, Piñera-Avellaneda, David, Pérez-Palou, Lluís, Ortiz-Hernández, Mònica, Ginebra, María Pau, Calero, José Antonio, Manero, José María, Rupérez, Elisa, (2023). Dual-Action Effect of Gallium and Silver Providing Osseointegration and Antibacterial Properties to Calcium Titanate Coatings on Porous Titanium Implants International Journal Of Molecular Sciences 24, 8762

Previously, functional coatings on 3D-printed titanium implants were developed to improve their biointegration by separately incorporating Ga and Ag on the biomaterial surface. Now, a thermochemical treatment modification is proposed to study the effect of their simultaneous incorporation. Different concentrations of AgNO3 and Ga(NO3)3 are evaluated, and the obtained surfaces are completely characterized. Ion release, cytotoxicity, and bioactivity studies complement the characterization. The provided antibacterial effect of the surfaces is analyzed, and cell response is assessed by the study of SaOS-2 cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. The Ti surface doping is confirmed by the formation of Ga-containing Ca titanates and nanoparticles of metallic Ag within the titanate coating. The surfaces generated with all combinations of AgNO3 and Ga(NO3)3 concentrations show bioactivity. The bacterial assay confirms a strong bactericidal impact achieved by the effect of both Ga and Ag present on the surface, especially for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, one of the main pathogens involved in orthopedic implant failures. SaOS-2 cells adhere and proliferate on the Ga/Ag-doped Ti surfaces, and the presence of gallium favors cell differentiation. The dual effect of both metallic agents doping the titanium surface provides bioactivity while protecting the biomaterial from the most frequent pathogens in implantology.

JTD Keywords: 3d-printing, agent, antibacterial activity, bioactive ti, biomaterials, coatings, competition, cu, gallium, glasses, ions, metal, porous structures, promote osseointegration, silver, titanium implants, In-vitro, Porous structures, Titanium implants

Mingot J, Benejam N, Víllora G, Alemán C, Armelin E, Lanzalaco S, (2023). Multimodal Biomedical Implant with Plasmonic and Simulated Body Temperature Responses Macromolecular Bioscience 23, e2300118

This work presents a novel nanoparticle-based thermosensor implant able to reveal the precise temperature variations along the polymer filaments, as it contracts and expands due to changes in the macroscale local temperature. The multimodal device is able to trace the position and the temperature of a polypropylene mesh, employed in abdominal hernia repair, by combining plasmon resonance and Raman spectroscopy with hydrogel responsive system. The novelty relies on the attachment of the biocompatible nanoparticles, based on gold stabilized by a chitosan-shell, already charged with the Raman reporter (RaR) molecules, to the robust prosthesis, without the need of chemical linkers. The SERS enhanced effect observed is potentiated by the presence of a quite thick layer of the copolymer (poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-co-poly(acrylamide)) hydrogel. At temperatures above the LCST of PNIPAAm-co-PAAm, the water molecules are expulsed and the hydrogel layer contracts, leaving the RaR molecules more accessible to the Raman source. In vitro studies with fibroblast cells reveal that the functionalized surgical mesh is biocompatible and no toxic substances are leached in the medium. The mesh sensor opens new frontiers to semi-invasive diagnosis and infection prevention in hernia repair by using SERS spectroscopy. It also offers new possibilities to the functionalization of other healthcare products.© 2023 Wiley-VCH GmbH.

JTD Keywords: adhesion, blends, chitosan, gold nanoparticles, poly(n-isopropylacrylamide), polypropylene mesh, polypropylene meshes, repair, scattering, silver, surgical implants, thermosensitive hydrogels, toxicity, Chitosan, Gold nanoparticles, Polypropylene meshes, Surgical implants, Thermosensitive hydrogels

Piñera-Avellaneda D, Buxadera-Palomero J, Ginebra MP, Calero JA, Manero JM, Rupérez E, (2023). Surface competition between osteoblasts and bacteria on silver-doped bioactive titanium implant Biomaterials Advances 146, 213311

The rapid integration in the bone tissue and the prevention of bacterial infection are key for the success of the implant. In this regard, a silver (Ag)-doped thermochemical treatment that generate an Ag-doped calcium titanate layer on titanium (Ti) implants was previously developed by our group to improve the bone-bonding ability and provide antibacterial activity. In the present study, the biological and antibacterial potential of this coating has been further studied. In order to prove that the Ag-doped layer has an antibacterial effect with no detrimental effect on the bone cells, the behavior of osteoblast-like cells in terms of cell adhesion, morphology, proliferation and differentiation was evaluated, and the biofilm inhibition capacity was assessed. Moreover, the competition by the surface between cell and bacteria was carried out in two different co-culture methods. Finally, the treatment was applied to porous Ti implants to study in vivo osteointegration. The results show that the incorporation of Ag inhibits the biofilm formation and has no effect on the performance of osteoblast-like cells. Therefore, it can be concluded that the Ag-doped surface is capable of preventing bone bacterial infection and providing suitable osseointegration.Copyright © 2023 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

JTD Keywords: co-culture, in vivo, porous titanium, silver, Co-culture, In vivo, Porous titanium, Silver, Titanium implant

De Lama-Odría, María del Carmen, Valle, Luis Jdel, Puiggalí, Jordi, (2023). Lanthanides-Substituted Hydroxyapatite for Biomedical Applications International Journal Of Molecular Sciences 24, 3446

Lately, there has been an increasing demand for materials that could improve tissue regenerative therapies and provide antimicrobial effects. Similarly, there is a growing need to develop or modify biomaterials for the diagnosis and treatment of different pathologies. In this scenario, hydroxyapatite (HAp) appears as a bioceramic with extended functionalities. Nevertheless, there are certain disadvantages related to the mechanical properties and lack of antimicrobial capacity. To circumvent them, the doping of HAp with a variety of cationic ions is emerging as a good alterative due to the different biological roles of each ion. Among many elements, lanthanides are understudied despite their great potential in the biomedical field. For this reason, the present review focuses on the biological benefits of lanthanides and how their incorporation into HAp can alter its morphology and physical properties. A comprehensive section of the applications of lanthanides-substituted HAp nanoparticles (HAp NPs) is presented to unveil the potential biomedical uses of these systems. Finally, the need to study the tolerable and non-toxic percentages of substitution with these elements is highlighted.

JTD Keywords: biolabeling, biomedicine, biosensors, bone regeneration, calcium, cancer treatment, cationic ions, cell imaging, cerium, doped hap, hydroxyapatite, implants, in-vitro bioactivity, lanthanides-substitutions, lanthanidessubstitutions, nanoparticles, radiation synovectomy, sm-153 particulate hydroxyapatite, structural-characterization, theragnostics, theranostic nanoplatforms, Europium-doped hydroxyapatite, Hydroxyapatite, Theragnostics

Pizarek, John A., Fischer, Nicholas G., Aparicio, Conrado, (2023). Immunomodulatory IL-23 receptor antagonist peptide nanocoatings for implant soft tissue healing Dental Materials 39, 204-216

Peri-implantitis, caused by an inflammatory response to pathogens, is the leading cause of dental implant failure. Poor soft tissue healing surrounding implants - caused by inadequate surface properties - leads to infection, inflammation, and dysregulated keratinocyte and macrophage function. One activated inflammatory response, active around peri-implantitis compared to healthy sites, is the IL-23/IL-17A cytokine axis. Implant surfaces can be synthesized with peptide nanocoatings to present immunomodulatory motifs to target peri-implant keratinocytes to control macrophage polarization and regulate inflammatory axises toward enhancing soft tissue healing.We synthesized an IL-23 receptor (IL-23R) noncompetitive antagonist peptide nanocoating using silanization and evaluated keratinocyte secretome changes and macrophage polarization (M1-like "pro-inflammatory" vs. M2-like "pro-regenerative").IL-23R antagonist peptide nanocoatings were successfully synthesized on titanium, to model dental implant surfaces, and compared to nonfunctional nanocoatings and non-coated titanium. IL-23R antagonist nanocoatings significantly decreased keratinocyte IL-23, and downstream IL-17A, expression compared to controls. This peptide noncompetitive antagonistic function was demonstrated under lipopolysaccharide stimulation. Large scale changes in keratinocyte secretome content, toward a pro-regenerative milieu, were observed from keratinocytes cultured on the IL-23R antagonist nanocoatings compared to controls. Conditioned medium collected from keratinocytes cultured on the IL-23R antagonist nanocoatings polarized macrophages toward a M2-like phenotype, based on increased CD163 and CD206 expression and reduced iNOS expression, compared to controls.Our results support development of IL-23R noncompetitive antagonist nanocoatings to reduce the pro-inflammatory IL-23/17A pathway and augment macrophage polarization toward a pro-regenerative phenotype. Immunomodulatory implant surface engineering may promote soft tissue healing and thereby reduce rates of peri-implantitis.Copyright © 2023 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

JTD Keywords: agents, alter, bioactivity, cells, dental implant, growth, keratinocyte, macrophage, peptide, peri -implant infection, peri-implant infection, Surface chemistry, Titanium

Fischer NG, Aparicio C, (2022). Junctional epithelium and hemidesmosomes: Tape and rivets for solving the “percutaneous device dilemma” in dental and other permanent implants Bioactive Materials 18, 178-198

The percutaneous device dilemma describes etiological factors, centered around the disrupted epithelial tissue surrounding non-remodelable devices, that contribute to rampant percutaneous device infection. Natural percutaneous organs, in particular their extracellular matrix mediating the “device”/epithelium interface, serve as exquisite examples to inspire longer lasting long-term percutaneous device design. For example, the tooth's imperviousness to infection is mediated by the epithelium directly surrounding it, the junctional epithelium (JE). The hallmark feature of JE is formation of hemidesmosomes, cell/matrix adhesive structures that attach surrounding oral gingiva to the tooth's enamel through a basement membrane. Here, the authors survey the multifaceted functions of the JE, emphasizing the role of the matrix, with a particular focus on hemidesmosomes and their five main components. The authors highlight the known (and unknown) effects dental implant – as a model percutaneous device – placement has on JE regeneration and synthesize this information for application to other percutaneous devices. The authors conclude with a summary of bioengineering strategies aimed at solving the percutaneous device dilemma and invigorating greater collaboration between clinicians, bioengineers, and matrix biologists. © 2022 The Authors

JTD Keywords: amino-acid-sequence, bioinspired surfaces, cell-secreted protein, growth-factor receptor, hemidesmosome, integrin beta-4 subunit, junctional epithelium, keratinocyte-derived chemokine, laminin-binding integrins, marginal bone loss, percutaneous device, percutaneous implant, pressure wound therapy, soft-tissue integration, Bioinspired surfaces, Bullous-pemphigoid antigen, Hemidesmosome, Junctional epithelium, Percutaneous device, Percutaneous implant

Boda, SK, Aparicio, C, (2022). Dual keratinocyte-attachment and anti-inflammatory coatings for soft tissue sealing around transmucosal oral implants Biomaterials Science 10, 665-677

Unlike the attachment of soft epithelial skin tissue to penetrating solid natural structures like fingernails and teeth, sealing around percutaneous/permucosal devices such as dental implants is hindered by inflammation and epidermal down growth. Here, we employed a dual keratinocyte-adhesive peptide and anti-inflammatory biomolecule coating on titanium to promote oral epithelial tissue attachment. For minimizing inflammation-triggered epidermal down growth, we coated pristine and oxygen plasma pre-treated polished titanium (pTi) with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Further, in order to aid in soft tissue attachment via the formation of hemidesmosomes, adhesive structures by oral keratinocytes, we coated the anionic linoleic acid (LA) adsorbed titanium with cationic cell adhesive peptides (CAP), LamLG3, a peptide derived from Laminin 332, the major extracellular matrix component of the basement membrane in skin tissue and Net1, derived from Netrin-1, a neural chemoattractant capable of epithelial cell attachment via alpha 6 beta 4 integrins. The dual CLA-CAP coatings on pTi were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and dynamic water contact angle measurements. The proliferation of human oral keratinocytes (TERT-2/OKF6) was accelerated on the peptide coated titanium while also promoting the expression of Col XVII and beta-4 integrin, two markers for hemidesmosomes. Simultaneously, CLA coating suppressed the production of inducible nitric oxide synthase (anti-iNOS); a pro-inflammatory M1 marker expressed in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated murine macrophages (RAW 264.7) and elevated expression of anti-CD206, associated to an anti-inflammatory M2 macrophage phenotype. Taken together, the dual keratinocyte-adhesive peptide and anti-inflammatory biomolecule coating on titanium can help reduce inflammation and promote permucosal/peri-implant soft tissue sealing.

JTD Keywords: Adhesives, Animal, Animals, Anti-inflammatories, Anti-inflammatory agents, Antiinflammatory agent, Biomolecules, Bone, Cell adhesion, Cell-adhesives, Coatings, Conjugated linoleic acid, Conjugated linoleic-acid, Contact angle, Hemidesmosome, Hemidesmosomes, Human, Humans, Hydroxyapatite, Inflammation, Integrins, Keratinocyte, Keratinocytes, Linoleic acid, Macrophages, Mice, Mouse, Nitric oxide, Oral implants, Pathology, Peptides, Skin tissue, Soft tissue, Supplementation, Surface properties, Surface property, Tissue, Titania, Titanium, X ray photoelectron spectroscopy

Raymond, Y, Lehmann, C, Thorel, E, Benitez, R, Riveiro, A, Pou, J, Manzanares, MC, Franch, J, Canal, C, Ginebra, MP, (2022). 3D printing with star-shaped strands: A new approach to enhance in vivo bone regeneration Biomaterials Advances 137, 212807

Concave surfaces have shown to promote bone regeneration in vivo. However, bone scaffolds obtained by direct ink writing, one of the most promising approaches for the fabrication of personalized bone grafts, consist mostly of convex surfaces, since they are obtained by microextrusion of cylindrical strands. By modifying the geometry of the nozzle, it is possible to print 3D structures composed of non-cylindrical strands and favor the presence of concave surfaces. In this work, we compare the in vivo performance of 3D-printed calcium phosphate scaffolds with either conventional cylindrical strands or star-shaped strands, in a rabbit femoral condyle model. Mono cortical defects, drilled in contralateral positions, are randomly grafted with the two scaffold configurations, with identical composition. The samples are explanted eight weeks post-surgery and assessed by ??-CT and resin embedded histological observations. The results reveal that the scaffolds containing star-shaped strands have better osteoconductive properties, guiding the newly formed bone faster towards the core of the scaffolds, and enhance bone regeneration, although the increase is not statistically significant (p > 0.05). This new approach represents a turning point towards the optimization of pore shape in 3D-printed bone grafts, further boosting the possibilities that direct ink writing technology offers for patient-specific applications.

JTD Keywords: 3d printing, biomimetic calcium phosphate, bone regeneration, in vivo, pore architecture, 3d printing, Architecture, Biomimetic calcium phosphate, Bone regeneration, Calcium-phosphate scaffolds, Geometry, Growth, Implants, In vivo, Induction, Microporosity, Osteoinduction, Pore architecture, Scaffold, Surfaces, Tissue

Rodríguez-Contreras A, Torres D, Rafik B, Ortiz-Hernandez M, Ginebra MP, Calero JA, Manero JM, Ruperez E, (2021). Bioactivity and antibacterial properties of calcium- and silver-doped coatings on 3D printed titanium scaffolds Surface & Coatings Technology 421

One of the major problems faced by metallic implants is the high probability of bacterial infections, with significant consequences for the patient. In this work, a thermochemical treatment is proposed to obtain silver-doped calcium titanate coatings on the Ti surface to improve the bioactivity of porous 3D-printed Ti structures and simultaneously provide them with antibacterial properties. A complete characterization of the new coating, the study of the ion release and the analysis of its cytotoxicity were carried out together with evaluation of the natural apatite forming in simulated body fluid (SBF). Moreover, the antibacterial properties of the coatings were assessed against Pseudomona aeruginosa and Escherichia coli as gram-negative and Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis as gram-positive bacterial strains. Ag ions were integrated into the Ca titanate layer and Ag nanoparticles were formed within the entire 3D Ti surface. Ca and Ag ions were released from both porous and solid samples into the Hanks' solution for 48 h. The treated surfaces showed no cytotoxicity and an apatite layer precipitated on the entire porous surface when the samples were immersed in SBF. The release of Ag from the surface had a strong antibacterial effect and prevented bacterial adhesion and proliferation on the surface. Moreover, the nanostructured topography of the coating resulted also in a reduction of bacterial adhesion and proliferation, even in absence of Ag. In conclusion, the cost-effective approach here reported provided protection against the most predominant bacterial colonizers to the Ti porous implants, while maintaining their bioactivity.

JTD Keywords: 3d-printing, alkaline, antibacterial activity, arthroplasty, bacterial adhesion, biomaterials, generation, ions, nanoparticles, osseointegration, silver, surface-layer, titanium implants, toxicity, 3d-printing, Antibacterial activity, Biomaterials, Porous structures, Silver, Ti metal, Titanium implants

Molina BG, del Valle LJ, Casanovas J, Lanzalaco S, Pérez-Madrigal MM, Turon P, Armelin E, Alemán C, (2021). Plasma-Functionalized Isotactic Polypropylene Assembled with Conducting Polymers for Bacterial Quantification by NADH Sensing Advanced Healthcare Materials 10, e2100425

Rapid detection of bacterial presence on implantable medical devices is essential to prevent biofilm formation, which consists of densely packed bacteria colonies able to withstand antibiotic-mediated killing. In this work, a smart approach is presented to integrate electrochemical sensors for detecting bacterial infections in biomedical implants made of isotactic polypropylene (i-PP) using chemical assembly. The electrochemical detection is based on the capacity of conducting polymers (CPs) to detect extracellular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) released from cellular respiration of bacteria, which allows distinguishing prokaryotic from eukaryotic cells. Oxygen plasma-functionalized free-standing i-PP, coated with a layer (≈1.1 µm in thickness) of CP nanoparticles obtained by oxidative polymerization, is used as working electrode for the anodic polymerization of a second CP layer (≈8.2 µm in thickness), which provides very high electrochemical activity and stability. The resulting layered material, i-PP /CP , detects the electro-oxidation of NADH in physiological media with a sensitivity 417 µA cm and a detection limit up to 0.14 × 10 m, which is below the concentration of extracellular NADH found for bacterial cultures of biofilm-positive and biofilm-negative strains. f 2 −2 −3

JTD Keywords: bacteria respiration, bacteria sensors, biomedical implants, flexible sensors, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), Bacteria respiration, Bacteria sensors, Biomedical implants, Flexible sensors, Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)

Minguela J, Müller DW, Mücklich F, Llanes L, Ginebra MP, Roa JJ, Mas-Moruno C, (2021). Peptidic biofunctionalization of laser patterned dental zirconia: A biochemical-topographical approach Materials Science & Engineering C-Materials For Biological Applications 125, 112096

A dual approach employing peptidic biofunctionalization and laser micro-patterns on dental zirconia was explored, with the aim of providing a flexible tool to improve tissue integration of restorations. Direct laser interference patterning with a femtosecond Ti:Sapphire laser was employed, and two periodic grooved patterns were produced with a periodicity of 3 and 10 μm. A platform containing the cell-adhesive RGD and the osteogenic DWIVA peptides was used to functionalize the grooved surfaces. Topography and surface damage were characterized by confocal laser scanning (CLSM), scanning electron and scanning transmission electron microscopy techniques. The surface patterns exhibited a high homogeneity and subsurface damage was found in the form of nano-cracks and nano-pores, at the bottom of the valleys. Accelerated tests in water steam were carried out to assess hydrothermal degradation resistance, which slightly decreased after the laser treatment. Interestingly, the detrimental effects of the laser modification were reverted by a post-laser thermal treatment. The attachment of the molecule was verified trough fluorescence CLSM and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Finally, the biological properties of the surfaces were studied in human mesenchymal stem cells. Cell adhesion, morphology, migration and differentiation were investigated. Cells on grooved surfaces displayed an elongated morphology and aligned along the patterns. On these surfaces, migration was greatly enhanced along the grooves, but also highly restricted in the perpendicular direction as compared to flat specimens. After biofunctionalization, cell number and cell area increased and well-developed cell cytoskeletons were observed. However, no effects on cell migration were found for the peptidic platform. Although some osteogenic potential was found in specimens grooved with a periodicity of 10 μm, the largest effects were observed from the biomolecule, which favored upregulation of several genes related to osteoblastic differentiation in all the surfaces.

JTD Keywords: alumina toughened zirconia, cell alignment, grain-size, implants, interference, laser patterning, osteogenic differentiation, osteointegration, peptides, surface functionalization, surface-topography, tissue, titanium surface, Laser patterning, Low-temperature degradation, Osteointegration, Peptides, Surface functionalization, Zirconia

Dulay S, Rivas L, Miserere S, Pla L, Berdún S, Parra J, Eixarch E, Gratacós E, Illa M, Mir M, Samitier J, (2021). in vivo Monitoring with micro-implantable hypoxia sensor based on tissue acidosis Talanta 226, 122045

© 2020 Elsevier B.V. Hypoxia is a common medical problem, sometimes difficult to detect and caused by different situations. Control of hypoxia is of great medical importance and early detection is essential to prevent life threatening complications. However, the few current methods are invasive, expensive, and risky. Thus, the development of reliable and accurate sensors for the continuous monitoring of hypoxia is of vital importance for clinical monitoring. Herein, we report an implantable sensor to address these needs. The developed device is a low-cost, miniaturised implantable electrochemical sensor for monitoring hypoxia in tissue by means of pH detection. This technology is based on protonation/deprotonation of polypyrrole conductive polymer. The sensor was optimized in vitro and tested in vivo intramuscularly and ex vivo in blood in adult rabbits with respiration-induced hypoxia and correlated with the standard device ePOCTM. The sensor demonstrated excellent sensitivity and reproducibility; 46.4 ± 0.4 mV/pH in the pH range of 4–9 and the selectivity coefficient exhibited low interference activity in vitro. The device was linear (R2 = 0.925) with a low dispersion of the values (n = 11) with a cut-off of 7.1 for hypoxia in vivo and ex vivo. Statistics with one-way ANOVA (α = 0.05), shows statistical differences between hypoxia and normoxia states and the good performance of the pH sensor, which demonstrated good agreement with the standard device. The sensor was stable and functional after 18 months. The excellent results demonstrated the feasibility of the sensors in real-time monitoring of intramuscular tissue and blood for medical applications.

JTD Keywords: biocompatibility, blood-flow, clinical monitoring, electrochemical biosensor, electrodes, hypoxia, implantable sensor, in vivo tissue monitoring, ischemia, lactate, ph, ph sensor, rabbits, responses, vitro, Clinical monitoring, Dual signal outputs, Hypoxia, Implantable sensor, In vivo tissue monitoring, Ischemia, Ph sensor

Vidal, E, Guillem-Marti, J, Ginebra, MP, Combes, C, Ruperez, E, Rodriguez, D, (2021). Multifunctional homogeneous calcium phosphate coatings: Toward antibacterial and cell adhesive titanium scaffolds Surface & Coatings Technology 405,

Implants for orthopedic applications need to be biocompatible and bioactive, with mechanical properties similar to those of surrounding natural bone. Given this scenario titanium (Ti) scaffolds obtained by Direct Ink Writing technique offer the opportunity to manufacture customized structures with controlled porosity and mechanical properties. Considering that 3D Ti scaffolds have a significant surface area, it is necessary to develop strategies against the initial bacterial adhesion in order to prevent infection in the early stages of the implantation, while promoting cell adhesion to the scaffold. The challenge is not only achieving a balance between antibacterial activity and osseointegration, it is also to develop a homogeneous coating on the inner and outer surface of the scaffold. The purpose of this work was the development of a single-step electrodeposition process in order to uniformly cover Ti scaffolds with a layer of calcium phosphate (CaP) loaded with chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX). Scaffold characterization was assessed by scanning electron microscopy, Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, micro-Raman microscopy and compressive strength tests. Results determined that the surface of scaffolds was covered by plate-like and whisker-like calcium phosphate crystals, which main phases were octacalcium phosphate and brushite. Biological tests showed that the as-coated scaffolds reduced bacteria adhesion (73 +/- 3% for Staphylococcus aureus and 70 +/- 2% for Escherichia coli). In vitro cell studies and confocal analysis revealed the adhesion and spreading of osteoblast-like SaOS-2 on coated surfaces. Therefore, the proposed strategy can be a potential candidate in bone replacing surgeries.

JTD Keywords: Antibacterial, Bacterial, Behavior, Biocompatibility, Calcium phosphate coating, Chlorhexidine, Chlorhexidine digluconate, Deposition, Electrodeposition, Hydroxyapatite coatings, Implants, One-step pulse electrodeposition, Plasma-spray, Release, Surface, Titanium scaffolds

Ojosnegros, S, Seriola, A, Godeau, AL, Veiga, A, (2021). Embryo implantation in the laboratory: an update on current techniques Human Reproduction Update 27, 501-530

BACKGROUND: The embryo implantation process is crucial for the correct establishment and progress of pregnancy. During implantation, the blastocyst trophectoderm cells attach to the epithelium of the endometrium, triggering intense cell-to-cell crosstalk that leads to trophoblast outgrowth, invasion of the endometrial tissue, and formation of the placenta. However, this process, which is vital for embryo and foetal development in utero, is still elusive to experimentation because of its inaccessibility. Experimental implantation is cumbersome and impractical in adult animal models and is inconceivable in humans. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: A number of custom experimental solutions have been proposed to recreate different stages of the implantation process in vitro, by combining a human embryo (or a human embryo surrogate) and endometrial cells (or a surrogate for the endometrial tissue). In vitro models allow rapid high-throughput interrogation of embryos and cells, and efficient screening of molecules, such as cytokines, drugs, or transcription factors, that control embryo implantation and the receptivity of the endometrium. However, the broad selection of available in vitro systems makes it complicated to decide which system best fits the needs of a specific experiment or scientific question. To orient the reader, this review will explore the experimental options proposed in the literature, and classify them into amenable categories based on the embryo/cell pairs employed. The goal is to give an overview of the tools available to study the complex process of human embryo implantation, and explain the differences between them, including the advantages and disadvantages of each system. SEARCH METHODS: We performed a comprehensive review of the literature to come up with different categories that mimic the different stages of embryo implantation in vitro, ranging from initial blastocyst apposition to later stages of trophoblast invasion or gastrulation. We will also review recent breakthrough advances on stem cells and organoids, assembling embryo-like structures and endometrial tissues. OUTCOMES: We highlight the most relevant systems and describe the most significant experiments. We focus on in vitro systems that have contributed to the study of human reproduction by discovering molecules that control implantation, including hormones, signalling molecules, transcription factors and cytokines. WIDER IMPLICATIONS: The momentum of this field is growing thanks to the use of stem cells to build embryo-like structures and endometrial tissues, and the use of bioengineering to extend the life of embryos in culture. We propose to merge bioengineering methods derived from the fields of stem cells and reproduction to develop new systems covering a wider window of the implantation process.

JTD Keywords: in vitro models, blastocyst, blastocyst-like structures, early-pregnancy, endometrial cells, epidermal-growth-factor, gene-expression, implantation, in vitro models, in-vitro model, indian hedgehog, organoids, receptivity, self-organization, spheroids, trophoblast, trophoblast invasion, uterine receptivity, Blastocyst, Blastocyst-like structures, Early-pregnancy, Endometrial cells, Endometrial stromal cells, Epidermal-growth-factor, Gene-expression, Implantation, In vitro models, In-vitro model, Indian hedgehog, Organoids, Receptivity, Self-organization, Spheroids, Trophoblast, Trophoblast invasion, Uterine receptivity

Dulay, S, Rivas, L, Pla, L, Berdun, S, Eixarch, E, Gratacos, E, Illa, M, Mir, M, Samitier, J, (2021). Fetal ischemia monitoring with in vivo implanted electrochemical multiparametric microsensors Journal Of Biological Engineering 15, 28

Under intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), abnormal attainment of the nutrients and oxygen by the fetus restricts the normal evolution of the prenatal causing in many cases high morbidity being one of the top-ten causes of neonatal death. The current gold standards in hospitals to detect this relevant problem is the clinical observation by echography, cardiotocography and Doppler. These qualitative techniques are not conclusive and requires risky invasive fetal scalp blood testing and/or amniocentesis. We developed micro-implantable multiparametric electrochemical sensors for measuring ischemia in real time in fetal tissue and vascular. This implantable technology is designed to continuous monitoring for an early detection of ischemia to avoid potential fetal injury. Two miniaturized electrochemical sensors were developed based on oxygen and pH detection. The sensors were optimized in vitro under controlled concentration, to assess the selectivity and sensitivity required. The sensors were then validated in vivo in the ewe fetus model, by means of their insertion in the muscle leg and inside the iliac artery of the fetus. Ischemia was achieved by gradually obstructing the umbilical cord to regulate the amount of blood reaching the fetus. An important challenge in fetal monitoring is the detection of low levels of oxygen and pH changes under ischemic conditions, requiring high sensitivity sensors. Significant differences were observed in both; pH and pO(2) sensors under changes from normoxia to hypoxia states in the fetus tissue and vascular with both sensors. Herein, we demonstrate the feasibility of the developed sensors for future fetal monitoring in medical applications.

JTD Keywords: electrochemical biosensor, implantable sensor, in vivo validation, ischemia detection, tissue and vascular monitoring, Animal experiment, Animal model, Animal tissue, Article, Blood-gases, Brain, Classification, Controlled study, Diagnosis, Doppler, Early diagnosis, Electrochemical analysis, Electrochemical biosensor, Ewe, Feasibility study, Female, Fetus, Fetus disease, Fetus monitoring, Gestational age, Hypoxemia, Iliac artery, Implantable sensor, In vivo validation, Intrauterine growth restriction, Intrauterine growth retardation, Ischemia detection, Leg muscle, Management, Nonhuman, Oxygen consumption, Ph, Ph and oxygen detection, Ph measurement, Process optimization, Sheep, Tissue and vascular monitoring, Umbilical-cord occlusion

Rodríguez-Contreras, A., Torres, D., Guillem-Marti, J., Sereno, P., Ginebra, M. P., Calero, J. A., Manero, J. M., Rupérez, E., (2020). Development of novel dual-action coatings with osteoinductive and antibacterial properties for 3D-printed titanium implants Surface and Coatings Technology 403, 126381

Gallium (Ga) has been recently proposed as a novel therapeutic agent, since it promotes bone formation and exhibits antibacterial properties. This work focuses on the optimization of a thermochemical treatment that incorporates Ga ions by the addition of the body-friendly Ga nitrate approved by the Food and Drug Administration. The objective was to simultaneously provide the inner and the outer surfaces of porous‑titanium surfaces obtained by 3D-printing with bioactivity and antibacterial properties. The apatite-forming ability of the coating, as well as the antibacterial activity and SaOS-2 cell adhesion, proliferation, differentiation and mineralization were evaluated and compared with untreated Ti surfaces. The characterization of the surfaces revealed the presence of a Ga-containing calcium titanate layer, which was non cytotoxic and in simulated body fluid produced a homogeneous apatite coating well adhered to the substrate. The formation of this apatite layer was accelerated with increasing Ga amounts present on the surface, resulting also in an increase in thickness. An initial quick release of Ga ion promoted the antibacterial effect against gram positive strains, especially for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, one of the most frequent resistant pathogens in nosocomial infections. SaOS-2 cells adhered and proliferated on the Ga-doped Ti surfaces, its presence contributed to cell differentiation and to considerably increase the mineralization levels. Thus, the developed multifunctional coatings could provide bioactivity to the porous Ti implants while protecting them from the most frequent gram-negative pathogens.

JTD Keywords: 3D-printing, Antibacterial activity, Biomaterials, Gallium, Porous structures, Titanium implants

Rivas, L., Dulay, S., Miserere, S., Pla, L., Marin, S. B., Parra, J., Eixarch, E., Gratacós, E., Illa, M., Mir, M., Samitier, J., (2020). Micro-needle implantable electrochemical oxygen sensor: ex-vivo and in-vivo studies Biosensors and Bioelectronics 153, 112028

Oxygen is vital for energy metabolism in mammals and the variability of the concentration is considered a clinical alert for a wide range of metabolic malfunctions in medicine. In this article, we describe the development and application of a micro-needle implantable platinum-based electrochemical sensor for measuring partial pressure of oxygen in intramuscular tissue (in-vivo) and vascular blood (ex-vivo). The Pt-Nafion® sensor was characterized morphological and electrochemically showing a higher sensitivity of −2.496 nA/mmHg (−1.495 nA/μM) when comparing with its bare counterpart. Our sensor was able to discriminate states with different oxygen partial pressures (pO2) for ex-vivo (blood) following the same trend of the commercial gas analyzer used as standard. For in-vivo (intramuscular) experiments, since there is not a gold standard for measuring pO2 in tissue, it was not possible to correlate the obtained currents with the pO2 in tissue. However, our sensor was able to detect clear statistical differences of O2 between hyperoxia and hypoxia states in tissue.

JTD Keywords: Hypoxia, Implantable sensor, In-vivo test, Ischemia, Nafion, Oxygen sensor

Lanzalaco, S., Turon, P., Weis, C., Mata, C., Planas, E., Alemán, C., Armelin, E., (2020). Toward the new generation of surgical meshes with 4D response: Soft, dynamic, and adaptable Advanced Functional Materials 30, (36), 2004145

Herein, a facile approach toward transforming a 2D polypropylene flexible mesh material into a 4D dynamic system is presented. The versatile platform, composed by a substrate of knitted fibers of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) mesh and a coating of thermosensitive poly(N‐isopropylacrylamide‐co‐N,N’‐methylene bis(acrylamide) (PNIPAAm‐co‐MBA) hydrogel, covalently bonded to the mesh surface, after cold‐plasma surface treatment and radical polymerization, is intended to undergo variations in its geometry via its reversible folding/unfolding behavior. The study is the first to trace the 3D movement of a flat surgical mesh, intended to repair hernia defects, under temperature and humidity control. An infrared thermographic camera and an optical microscope are used to evaluate the macroscopic and microscopic structure stimulus response. The presence of the PP substrate and the distribution of the gel surrounding the PP threads, affect both the PNIPAAM gel expansion/contraction as well as the time of folding/unfolding response. Furthermore, PP‐g‐PNIPAAm meshes show an increase in the bursting strength of ≈16% with respect to the uncoated mesh, offering a strongest and adaptable system for its future implantation in human body. The findings reported offer unprecedented application possibilities in the biomedical field.

JTD Keywords: Dynamic devices, Polypropylene meshes, Surgical implants, Thermosensitive hydrogels

Juanola-Feliu, E., Miribel-Català, P. L., Avilés, C. P., Colomer-Farrarons, J., González-Piñero, M., Samitier, J., (2014). Design of a customized multipurpose nano-enabled implantable system for in-vivo theranostics Sensors 14, (10), 19275-19306

The first part of this paper reviews the current development and key issues on implantable multi-sensor devices for in vivo theranostics. Afterwards, the authors propose an innovative biomedical multisensory system for in vivo biomarker monitoring that could be suitable for customized theranostics applications. At this point, findings suggest that cross-cutting Key Enabling Technologies (KETs) could improve the overall performance of the system given that the convergence of technologies in nanotechnology, biotechnology, micro&nanoelectronics and advanced materials permit the development of new medical devices of small dimensions, using biocompatible materials, and embedding reliable and targeted biosensors, high speed data communication, and even energy autonomy. Therefore, this article deals with new research and market challenges of implantable sensor devices, from the point of view of the pervasive system, and time-to-market. The remote clinical monitoring approach introduced in this paper could be based on an array of biosensors to extract information from the patient. A key contribution of the authors is that the general architecture introduced in this paper would require minor modifications for the final customized bio-implantable medical device.

JTD Keywords: Biocompatible, Biosensor, Biotelemetry, Implantable multi-sensor, Innovation, KET, Nanomedicine, Personalized medicine, Biotelemetry, Innovation, Medical nanotechnology, Biocompatible, Implantable system, In-vivo, KET, Multi sensor, Personalized medicines, Theranostics, Biosensors

Mir, M., Lugo, R., Tahirbegi, I. B., Samitier, J., (2014). Miniaturizable ion-selective arrays based on highly stable polymer membranes for biomedical applications Sensors 14, (7), 11844-11854

Poly(vinylchloride) (PVC) is the most common polymer matrix used in the fabrication of ion-selective electrodes (ISEs). However, the surfaces of PVC-based sensors have been reported to show membrane instability. In an attempt to overcome this limitation, here we developed two alternative methods for the preparation of highly stable and robust ion-selective sensors. These platforms are based on the selective electropolymerization of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), where the sulfur atoms contained in the polymer covalently interact with the gold electrode, also permitting controlled selective attachment on a miniaturized electrode in an array format. This platform sensor was improved with the crosslinking of the membrane compounds with poly(ethyleneglycol) diglycidyl ether (PEG), thus also increasing the biocompatibility of the sensor. The resulting ISE membranes showed faster signal stabilization of the sensor response compared with that of the PVC matrix and also better reproducibility and stability, thus making these platforms highly suitable candidates for the manufacture of robust implantable sensors.

JTD Keywords: Biomedicine, Electrochemistry, Endoscope, Implantable device, Ion-selective electrode (ISE) sensor, Ischemia, pH detection, Biocompatibility, Chemical sensors, Electrochemistry, Electrodes, Electropolymerization, Endoscopy, Functional polymers, Implants (surgical), Ion selective electrodes, Medical applications, Polyvinyl chlorides, Stabilization, Biomedical applications, Biomedicine, Implantable devices, Ion selective sensors, Ischemia, Membrane instability, pH detection, Poly(3 ,4 ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), Ion selective membranes

Tahirbegi, I. B., Alvira, M., Mir, M., Samitier, J., (2014). Simple and fast method for fabrication of endoscopic implantable sensor arrays Sensors 14, (7), 11416-11426

Here we have developed a simple method for the fabrication of disposable implantable all-solid-state ion-selective electrodes (ISE) in an array format without using complex fabrication equipment or clean room facilities. The electrodes were designed in a needle shape instead of planar electrodes for a full contact with the tissue. The needle-shape platform comprises 12 metallic pins which were functionalized with conductive inks and ISE membranes. The modified microelectrodes were characterized with cyclic voltammetry, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and optical interferometry. The surface area and roughness factor of each microelectrode were determined and reproducible values were obtained for all the microelectrodes on the array. In this work, the microelectrodes were modified with membranes for the detection of pH and nitrate ions to prove the reliability of the fabricated sensor array platform adapted to an endoscope.

JTD Keywords: Chemical sensors, Cyclic voltammetry, Electrochemistry, Endoscopy, Fabrication, Implants (surgical), Microelectrodes, Needles, Nitrates, Scanning electron microscopy, Biomedicine, Fabricated sensors, Fabrication equipment, Implantable devices, Implantable sensors, Optical interferometry, Planar electrode, Roughness factor, Ion selective electrodes

Noailly, J., Malandrino, A., Galbusera, F., Jin, Zhongmin, (2014). Computational modelling of spinal implants Computational Modelling of Biomechanics and Biotribology in the Musculoskeletal System (ed. Jin, Z.), Woodhead Publishing (Cambridge, UK) Biomaterials and Tissues, 447-484

This chapter focuses on the use of the finite element method in the design and exploration of spinal implants. Following an introduction to biomechanical alterations of the spine in disease and to spine finite element modelling, focus is placed on different models developed for spine treatment simulations. Despite the hindrance of working thorough representations of in vivo situations, predictions of load transfer within both the implants and the tissues simulated allow improved interpretations of known clinical outcomes, and permit the educated design of new implants. The potential of probabilistic modelling is also discussed in relation to model validation and patient-specific analyses. Finally, the latest developments in the multiphysical modelling of intervertebral discs are presented, revealing a strong potential for the study of implant-based strategies that aim to restore the functional biophysics of the spine.

JTD Keywords: Spinal implant, Finite element modelling, Spine surgery, Spine biomechanics, Tissue mechanobiology

Juanola-Feliu, Esteve, Colomer-Farrarons, Jordi, Miribel-Català, Pere, González-Piñero, Manel, Samitier, Josep, (2014). Nano-enabled implantable device for glucose monitoring Implantable Bioelectronics (ed. Katz, Evgeny), Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA (Weinheim, Germany) , 247-263

This chapter contains sections titled: * Introduction * Biomedical Devices for In Vivo Analysis * Conclusions and Final Recommendations * References

JTD Keywords: Technology transfer, Innovation management, Nanotechnology, Nanobiosensor, Diabetes, Biomedical device, Implantable biosensors

Juanola-Feliu, E., Colomer-Farrarons, J., Miribel-Català , P., Samitier, J., Valls-Pasola, J., (2012). Market challenges facing academic research in commercializing nano-enabled implantable devices for in-vivo biomedical analysis Technovation , 32, (3-4), 193-204

This article reports on the research and development of a cutting-edge biomedical device for continuous in-vivo glucose monitoring. This entirely public-funded process of technological innovation has been conducted at the University of Barcelona within a context of converging technologies involving the fields of medicine, physics, chemistry, biology, telecommunications, electronics and energy. The authors examine the value chain and the market challenges faced by in-vivo implantable biomedical devices based on nanotechnologies. In so doing, they trace the process from the point of applied research to the final integration and commercialization of the product, when the social rate of return from academic research can be estimated. Using a case-study approach, the paper also examines the high-tech activities involved in the development of this nano-enabled device and describes the technology and innovation management process within the value chain conducted in a University-Hospital-Industry-Administration-Citizens framework. Here, nanotechnology is seen to represent a new industrial revolution, boosting the biomedical devices market. Nanosensors may well provide the tools required for investigating biological processes at the cellular level in vivo when embedded into medical devices of small dimensions, using biocompatible materials, and requiring reliable and targeted biosensors, high speed data transfer, safely stored data, and even energy autonomy.

JTD Keywords: Biomedical device, Diabetes, Innovation management, Nanobiosensor, Nanotechnology, Research commercialization, Technology transfer, Academic research, Applied research, Barcelona, Biocompatible materials, Biological process, Biomedical analysis, Biomedical devices, Cellular levels, Converging technologies, Glucose monitoring, High-speed data transfer, Implantable biomedical devices, Implantable devices, In-vivo, Industrial revolutions, Innovation management, Medical Devices, Nanobiosensor, Rate of return, Research and development, Technological innovation, Value chains, Biological materials, Biomedical engineering, Biosensors, Commerce, Data transfer, Earnings, Engineering education, Glucose, Implants (surgical), Industrial research, Innovation, Medical problems, Nanosensors, Nanotechnology, Technology transfer, Equipment

Hristova, K., Pecheva, E., Pramatarova, L., Altankov, G., (2011). Improved interaction of osteoblast-like cells with apatite-nanodiamond coatings depends on fibronectin Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine , 22, (8), 1891-1900

New apatite (AP)/nanodiamond (ND) coating has been developed to improve physical and biological properties of stainless steel (SS) versus single AP coating. Homogeneously electrodeposited AP-ND layer demonstrates increased mechanical strength, interlayer cohesion and ductility. In the absence of serum, osteoblast-like MG63 cells attach well but poorly spread on both AP and AP-ND substrata. Pre-adsorption with serum or fibronectin (FN) improves the cellular interaction-an effect that is better pronounced on the AP-ND coating. In single protein adsorption study fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled FN (FITC-FN) shows enhanced deposition on the AP-ND layer consistent with the significantly improved cell adhesion, spreading and focal adhesions formation (in comparison to SS and AP), particularly at low FN adsorption concentrations (1 mu g/ml). Higher FN concentrations (20 mu g/ml) abolish this difference suggesting that the promoted cellular interaction of serum (where FN is low) is caused by the greater affinity for FN. Moreover, it is found that MG63 cells tend to rearrange both adsorbed and secreted FN on the AP-ND layer suggesting facilitated FN matrix formation.

JTD Keywords: Extracellular-matrix, Protein adsorption, Integrins, Adhesion, Biomaterials, Surfaces, Polymerization, Composite, Implants, Titanium

Colomer-Farrarons, Jordi , Miribel-Català, Pedro Luís, Samitier, Josep , (2011). Low-voltage µpower CMOS subcutaneous biomedical implantable device for true/false applications Biomedical Engineering IASTED International Conference Biomedical Engineering (Biomed 2011) (ed. Baumgartner, C.), ACTA Press (Innsbruck, Austria) Biomedical Engineering, 424-428

A ±1.2V / 350μW integrated front-end architecture for a true/false in-vivo subcutaneous detection device is presented. The detection is focused on using three electrodes amperometric sensors. The powering and AM transcutaneous communication are based on an inductively coupled link working at 13.56 MHz. A prototype device (5.5 mm x 29.5 mm) has been implemented and fully validated.

JTD Keywords: Implantable Device, Front-End architecture, Bioelectronics, Microelectronics Design, Biosensors

Barhoumi, H., Haddad, R., Maaref, A., Bausells, J., Bessueille, F., Leonard, D., Jaffrezic-Renault, N., Martelet, C., Zine, N., Errachid, A., (2008). Na+-implanted membrane for a capacitive sodium electrolyte-Insulator-Semiconductor microsensors Sensor Letters International Conference of Thermal, Mechanical and Multiphysics Simulation and Experiments in Microelectronics and Microsystems (ed. -----), Amer Scientific Publishers (Lombardy, Italy) 6, (1), 204-208

Ion implanted Insulator-Semiconductor (IS) sensor that specifically detects Na+ ions have been developed using ion implantation technique. Na+ ions were directly implanted with ion energies 30, 45, and 60 keV into the IS (oxidized Si3N4/Si3N4/SiO2/P-Si) structures previously covered with a thin aluminum layer. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterization shows that sodium and aluminum ions were implanted into the oxidized Si3N4 insulating layer surface. Their atomic percentage depending on energy, fluence of the implanted ion and of the annealing temperature. The sen sitivity of the ion-implanted IS structure for Na+ and of some interfering (K+, Li+, H+, and NH4+) ions was investigated using high frequency capacitance-voltage measurements. Under optimal i mplantation conditions such as energy, fluence and annealing temperature, the developed sodium microsensor demonstrates quasi-nernstian sensitivity (50 +/- 2 mV/pNa) in the concentration range from 10(-3.7) to 10(-1) M and high lifetime greater than 16 months without any loss of sensitivity.

JTD Keywords: Na+ microsensor, Ion implantation, XPS, C-V measurements