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Publications

by Keyword: Peptide

El Hauadi K, Resina L, Zanuy D, Esteves T, Ferreira FC, Pérez-Madrigal MM, Alemán C, (2022). Dendritic Self-assembled Structures from Therapeutic Charged Pentapeptides Langmuir 38, 12905-12914

CRENKA [Cys-Arg-(NMe)Glu-Lys-Ala, where (NMe)Glu refers to N-methyl-Glu], an anti-cancer pentapeptide that induces prostate tumor necrosis and significant reduction in tumor growth, was engineered to increase the resistance to endogenous proteases of its parent peptide, CREKA (Cys-Arg-Glu-Lys-Ala). Considering their high tendency to aggregate, the self-assembly of CRENKA and CREKA into well-defined and ordered structures has been examined as a function of peptide concentration and pH. Spectroscopic studies and atomistic molecular dynamics simulations reveal significant differences between the secondary structures of CREKA and CRENKA. Thus, the restrictions imposed by the (NMe)Glu residue reduce the conformational variability of CRENKA with respect to CREKA, which significantly affects the formation of well-defined and ordered self-assembly morphologies. Aggregates with poorly defined morphology are obtained from solutions with low and moderate CREKA concentrations at pH 4, whereas well-defined dendritic microstructures with fractal geometry are obtained from CRENKA solutions with similar peptide concentrations at pH 4 and 7. The formation of dendritic structures is proposed to follow a two-step mechanism: (1) pseudo-spherical particles are pre-nucleated through a diffusion-limited aggregation process, pre-defining the dendritic geometry, and (2) such pre-nucleated structures coalesce by incorporating conformationally restrained CRENKA molecules from the solution to their surfaces, forming a continuous dendritic structure. Instead, no regular assembly is obtained from solutions with high peptide concentrations, as their dynamics is dominated by strong repulsive peptide-peptide electrostatic interactions, and from solutions at pH 10, in which the total peptide charge is zero. Overall, results demonstrate that dendritic structures are only obtained when the molecular charge of CRENKA, which is controlled through the pH, favors kinetics over thermodynamics during the self-assembly process.

JTD Keywords: aggregation, amphiphilic peptides, breast-cancer, cells, design, oxidative stress, resistance, strategy, Molecular-dynamics


Molina-Fernandez, R, Picon-Pages, P, Barranco-Almohalla, A, Crepin, G, Herrera-Fernandez, V, Garcia-Elias, A, Fanlo-Ucar, H, Fernandez-Busquets, X, Garcia-Ojalvo, J, Oliva, B, Munoz, FJ, (2022). Differential regulation of insulin signalling by monomeric and oligomeric amyloid beta-peptide Brain Commun 4, fcac243

Alzheimer's disease and Type 2 diabetes are pathological processes associated to ageing. Moreover, there are evidences supporting a mechanistic link between Alzheimer's disease and insulin resistance (one of the first hallmarks of Type 2 diabetes). Regarding Alzheimer's disease, amyloid beta-peptide aggregation into beta-sheets is the main hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. At monomeric state, amyloid beta-peptide is not toxic but its function in brain, if any, is unknown. Here we show, by in silico study, that monomeric amyloid beta-peptide 1-40 shares the tertiary structure with insulin and is thereby able to bind and activate insulin receptor. We validated this prediction experimentally by treating human neuroblastoma cells with increasing concentrations of monomeric amyloid. beta-peptide 1-40. Our results confirm that monomeric amyloid beta-peptide 1-40 activates insulin receptor autophosphorylation, triggering downstream enzyme phosphorylarions and the glucose Transporter 4 translocation to the membrane. On the other hand, neuronal insulin resistance is known to be associated to Alzheimer's disease since early stages. We thus modelled the docking of oligomeric amyloid peptide 1-40 to insulin receptor. We found that oligomeric amyloid. beta-peptide 1-40 blocks insulin receptor, impairing its activation. It was confirmed in vitro by observing the lack of insulin receptor autophosphorylation, and also the impairment of insulin-induced intracellular enzyme activations and the glucose Transporter 4 translocation to the membrane. By biological system analysis, we have carried out a mathematical model recapitulating the process that turns amyloid beta-peptide binding to insulin receptor from the physiological to the pathophysiological regime. Our results suggest that monomeric amyloid beta-peptide 1-40 contributes to mimic insulin effects in the brain, which could be good when neurons have an extra requirement of energy beside the well-known protective effects on insulin intracellular signalling, while its accumulation and subsequent oligomerization blocks the insulin receptor producing insulin resistance and compromising neuronal metabolism and protective pathways.

JTD Keywords: A-beta, Aggregation, Akt, Alzheimer's disease, Alzheimers-disease, Amyloid beta-peptide, Brain, Design, Insulin, Insulin resistance, Precursor protein, Protein-protein docking, Receptor, Resistance, Site


Oliver-Cervelló L, Martin-Gómez H, Mandakhbayar N, Jo YW, Cavalcanti-Adam EA, Kim HW, Ginebra MP, Lee JH, Mas-Moruno C, (2022). Mimicking Bone Extracellular Matrix: From BMP-2-Derived Sequences to Osteogenic-Multifunctional Coatings Advanced Healthcare Materials 11, 2201339

Cell-material interactions are regulated by mimicking bone extracellular matrix on the surface of biomaterials. In this regard, reproducing the extracellular conditions that promote integrin and growth factor (GF) signaling is a major goal to trigger bone regeneration. Thus, the use of synthetic osteogenic domains derived from bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) is gaining increasing attention, as this strategy is devoid of the clinical risks associated with this molecule. In this work, the wrist and knuckle epitopes of BMP-2 are screened to identify peptides with potential osteogenic properties. The most active sequences (the DWIVA motif and its cyclic version) are combined with the cell adhesive RGD peptide (linear and cyclic variants), to produce tailor-made biomimetic peptides presenting the bioactive cues in a chemically and geometrically defined manner. Such multifunctional peptides are next used to functionalize titanium surfaces. Biological characterization with mesenchymal stem cells demonstrates the ability of the biointerfaces to synergistically enhance cell adhesion and osteogenic differentiation. Furthermore, in vivo studies in rat calvarial defects prove the capacity of the biomimetic coatings to improve new bone formation and reduce fibrous tissue thickness. These results highlight the potential of mimicking integrin-GF signaling with synthetic peptides, without the need for exogenous GFs.© 2022 The Authors. Advanced Healthcare Materials published by Wiley-VCH GmbH.

JTD Keywords: Biomimetic peptides, Cell adhesions, Multifunctionality, Osteogenic differentiation, Rgd-dwiva, Titanium biofunctionalization


Perez-Madrigal, MM, Gilb, AM, Casanovas, J, Jimenez, AI, Macor, LP, Aleman, C, (2022). Self-assembly pathways in a triphenylalanine peptide capped with aromatic groups Colloids And Surfaces B-Biointerfaces 216, 112522

Peptide derivatives and, most specifically, their self-assembled supramolecular structures are being considered in the design of novel biofunctional materials. Although the self-assembly of triphenylalanine homopeptides has been found to be more versatile than that of homopeptides containing an even number of residues (i.e. diphe-nylalanine and tetraphenylalanine), only uncapped triphenylalanine (FFF) and a highly aromatic analog blocked at both the N-and C-termini with fluorenyl-containing groups (Fmoc-FFF-OFm), have been deeply studied before. In this work, we have examined the self-assembly of a triphenylalanine derivative bearing 9-fluorenylme-thyloxycarbonyl and benzyl ester end-capping groups at the N-and C-termini, respectively (Fmoc-FFF-OBzl). The antiparallel arrangement clearly dominates in beta-sheets formed by Fmoc-FFF-OBzl, whereas the parallel and antiparallel dispositions are almost isoenergetic in Fmoc-FFF-OFm beta-sheets and the parallel one is slightly favored for FFF. The effects of both the peptide concentration and the mediu m on the self-assembly process have been examined considering Fmoc-FFF-OBzl solutions in a wide variety of solvent:co-solvent mixtures. In addi-tion, Fmoc-FFF-OBzl supramolecular structures have been compared to those obtained for FFF and Fmoc-FFF-OFm under identical experimental conditions. The strength of pi-pi stacking interactions involving the end-capping groups plays a crucial role in the nucleation and growth of supramolecular structures, which de-termines the resulting morphology. Finally, the influence of a non-invasive external stimulus, ultrasounds, on the nucleation and growth of supramolecular structures has been examined. Overall, FFF-based peptides provide a wide range of supramolecular structures that can be of interest in the biotechnological field.

JTD Keywords: Amino-acids, Aromatic interactions, Beta-sheet, Fmoc, Hierarchical struc tures, Hydrogels, Phenylalanine homopeptides, Solvent, Spectroscopy, Supramolecular structures, Triphenylalanine


Rosales-Rojas, R, Zuniga-Bustos, M, Salas-Sepulveda, F, Galaz-Araya, C, Zamora, RA, Poblete, H, (2022). Self-Organization Dynamics of Collagen-like Peptides Crosslinking Is Driven by Rose-Bengal-Mediated Electrostatic Bridges Pharmaceutics 14, 1148

The present work focuses on the computational study of the structural micro-organization of hydrogels based on collagen-like peptides (CLPs) in complex with Rose Bengal (RB). In previous studies, these hydrogels computationally and experimentally demonstrated that when RB was activated by green light, it could generate forms of stable crosslinked structures capable of regenerating biological tissues such as the skin and cornea. Here, we focus on the structural and atomic interactions of two collagen-like peptides (collagen-like peptide I (CLPI), and collagen-like peptide II, (CLPII)) in the presence and absence of RB, highlighting the acquired three-dimensional organization and going deep into the stabilization effect caused by the dye. Our results suggest that the dye could generate a ternary ground-state complex between collagen-like peptide fibers, specifically with positively charged amino acids (Lys in CLPI and Arg in CLPII), thus stabilizing ordered three-dimensional structures. The discoveries generated in this study provide the structural and atomic bases for the subsequent rational development of new synthetic peptides with improved characteristics for applications in the regeneration of biological tissues during photochemical tissue bonding therapies.

JTD Keywords: Anastomosis, Collagen-like peptide, Crosslinking, Green light, Mm simulations, Molecular dynamics, Molecular-dynamics, Photochemical tissue bonding therapies, Qm, Rose bengal


Arque, X, Torres, MDT, Patino, T, Boaro, A, Sanchez, S, de la Fuente-Nunez, C, (2022). Autonomous Treatment of Bacterial Infections in Vivo Using Antimicrobial Micro- and Nanomotors Acs Nano 16, 7547-7558

The increasing resistance of bacteria to existing antibiotics constitutes a major public health threat globally. Most current antibiotic treatments are hindered by poor delivery to the infection site, leading to undesired off-target effects and drug resistance development and spread. Here, we describe micro- and nanomotors that effectively and autonomously deliver antibiotic payloads to the target area. The active motion and antimicrobial activity of the silica-based robots are driven by catalysis of the enzyme urease and antimicrobial peptides, respectively. These antimicrobial motors show micromolar bactericidal activity in vitro against different Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacterial strains and act by rapidly depolarizing their membrane. Finally, they demonstrated autonomous anti-infective efficacy in vivo in a clinically relevant abscess infection mouse model. In summary, our motors combine navigation, catalytic conversion, and bactericidal capacity to deliver antimicrobial payloads to specific infection sites. This technology represents a much-needed tool to direct therapeutics to their target to help combat drug-resistant infections.

JTD Keywords: antibiotic-resistance, antimicrobial peptides, autonomous treatment, bacterial infection, delivery, ll-37, nanoparticles, peptide, self-propulsion, tissue, vitro, wasp venom, Antibiotic-resistance, Antimicrobial peptides, Autonomous treatment, Bacterial infection, Delivery, Ll-37, Mesoporous silica nanoparticles, Nanomotors, Nanoparticles, Peptide, Self-propulsion, Tissue, Vitro, Wasp venom


Schieber, Romain, Mas-Moruno, Carlos, Lasserre, Federico, Roa, Joan Josep, Ginebra, Maria-Pau, Mücklich, Frank, Pegueroles, Marta, (2022). Effectiveness of Direct Laser Interference Patterning and Peptide Immobilization on Endothelial Cell Migration for Cardio-Vascular Applications: An In Vitro Study Nanomaterials 12, 1217

Endothelial coverage of an exposed cardiovascular stent surface leads to the occurrence of restenosis and late-stent thrombosis several months after implantation. To overcome this difficulty, modification of stent surfaces with topographical or biochemical features may be performed to increase endothelial cells’ (ECs) adhesion and/or migration. This work combines both strategies on cobalt-chromium (CoCr) alloy and studies the potential synergistic effect of linear patterned surfaces that are obtained by direct laser interference patterning (DLIP), coupled with the use of Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) and Tyr-Ile-Gly-Ser-Arg (YIGSR) peptides. An extensive characterization of the modified surfaces was performed by using AFM, XPS, surface charge, electrochemical analysis and fluorescent methods. The biological response was studied in terms of EC adhesion, migration and proliferation assays. CoCr surfaces were successfully patterned with a periodicity of 10 µm and two different depths, D (≈79 and 762 nm). RGD and YIGSR were immobilized on the surfaces by CPTES silanization. Early EC adhesion was increased on the peptide-functionalized surfaces, especially for YIGSR compared to RGD. High-depth patterns generated 80% of ECs’ alignment within the topographical lines and enhanced EC migration. It is noteworthy that the combined use of the two strategies synergistically accelerated the ECs’ migration and proliferation, proving the potential of this strategy to enhance stent endothelialization.

JTD Keywords: adhesion, bare-metal, biofunctionalization, biomaterials, cell adhesive peptides, cobalt-chromium alloy, endothelial cell migration, functionalization, matrix, proliferation, selectivity, shear-stress, surfaces, Direct laser interference patterning (dlip), Drug-eluting stents


Boda, SK, Aparicio, C, (2022). Dual keratinocyte-attachment and anti-inflammatory coatings for soft tissue sealing around transmucosal oral implants Biomaterials Science 10, 665-677

Unlike the attachment of soft epithelial skin tissue to penetrating solid natural structures like fingernails and teeth, sealing around percutaneous/permucosal devices such as dental implants is hindered by inflammation and epidermal down growth. Here, we employed a dual keratinocyte-adhesive peptide and anti-inflammatory biomolecule coating on titanium to promote oral epithelial tissue attachment. For minimizing inflammation-triggered epidermal down growth, we coated pristine and oxygen plasma pre-treated polished titanium (pTi) with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Further, in order to aid in soft tissue attachment via the formation of hemidesmosomes, adhesive structures by oral keratinocytes, we coated the anionic linoleic acid (LA) adsorbed titanium with cationic cell adhesive peptides (CAP), LamLG3, a peptide derived from Laminin 332, the major extracellular matrix component of the basement membrane in skin tissue and Net1, derived from Netrin-1, a neural chemoattractant capable of epithelial cell attachment via alpha 6 beta 4 integrins. The dual CLA-CAP coatings on pTi were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and dynamic water contact angle measurements. The proliferation of human oral keratinocytes (TERT-2/OKF6) was accelerated on the peptide coated titanium while also promoting the expression of Col XVII and beta-4 integrin, two markers for hemidesmosomes. Simultaneously, CLA coating suppressed the production of inducible nitric oxide synthase (anti-iNOS); a pro-inflammatory M1 marker expressed in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated murine macrophages (RAW 264.7) and elevated expression of anti-CD206, associated to an anti-inflammatory M2 macrophage phenotype. Taken together, the dual keratinocyte-adhesive peptide and anti-inflammatory biomolecule coating on titanium can help reduce inflammation and promote permucosal/peri-implant soft tissue sealing.

JTD Keywords: Adhesives, Animal, Animals, Anti-inflammatories, Anti-inflammatory agents, Antiinflammatory agent, Biomolecules, Bone, Cell adhesion, Cell-adhesives, Coatings, Conjugated linoleic acid, Conjugated linoleic-acid, Contact angle, Hemidesmosome, Hemidesmosomes, Human, Humans, Hydroxyapatite, Inflammation, Integrins, Keratinocyte, Keratinocytes, Linoleic acid, Macrophages, Mice, Mouse, Nitric oxide, Oral implants, Pathology, Peptides, Skin tissue, Soft tissue, Supplementation, Surface properties, Surface property, Tissue, Titania, Titanium, X ray photoelectron spectroscopy


Leite, DM, Seifi, M, Ruiz-Perez, L, Nguemo, F, Plomann, M, Swinny, JD, Battaglia, G, (2022). Syndapin-2 mediated transcytosis of amyloid-beta across the blood brain barrier Brain Commun 4, fcac093

A deficient transport of amyloid-beta across the blood-brain barrier, and its diminished clearance from the brain, contribute to neurodegenerative and vascular pathologies, such as Alzheimer's disease and cerebral amyloid angiopathy, respectively. At the blood-brain barrier, amyloid-beta efflux transport is associated with the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1. However, the precise mechanisms governing amyloid-beta transport across the blood-brain barrier, in health and disease, remain to be fully understood. Recent evidence indicates that the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 transcytosis occurs through a tuhulation-mediated mechanism stabilized by syndapin-2. Here, we show that syndapin-2 is associated with amyloid-beta clearance via low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 across the blood-brain barrier. We further demonstrate that risk factors for Alzheimer's disease, amyloid-beta expression and ageing, are associated with a decline in the native expression of syndapin-2 within the brain endothelium. Our data reveals that syndapin-2-mediated pathway, and its balance with the endosomal sorting, are important for amyloid-beta clearance proposing a measure to evaluate Alzheimer's disease and ageing, as well as a target for counteracting amyloid-beta build-up. Moreover, we provide evidence for the impact of the avidity of amyloid-beta assemblies in their trafficking across the brain endothelium and in low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 expression levels, which may affect the overall clearance of amyloid-beta across the blood-brain barrier.

JTD Keywords: Alzheimer's disease, Alzheimers-disease, Amyloid-beta, Apolipoprotein-j, Blood-brain barrier, Clearance, Expression, Membrane invagination, Peptide, Protein, Rab gtpases, Receptor, Syndapin-2, Transport, Tubular transcytosis


Duro-Castano, Aroa, Rodríguez-Arco, Laura, Ruiz-Pérez, Lorena, De Pace, Cesare, Marchello, Gabriele, Noble-Jesus, Carlos, Battaglia, Giuseppe, (2021). One-Pot Synthesis of Oxidation-Sensitive Supramolecular Gels and Vesicles Biomacromolecules 22, 5052-5064

Polypeptide-based nanoparticles offer unique advantages from a nanomedicine perspective such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, and stimuli-responsive properties to (patho)physiological conditions. Conventionally, self-assembled polypeptide nanostructures are prepared by first synthesizing their constituent amphiphilic polypeptides followed by postpolymerization self-assembly. Herein, we describe the one-pot synthesis of oxidation-sensitive supramolecular micelles and vesicles. This was achieved by polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA) of the N-carboxyanhydride (NCA) precursor of methionine using poly(ethylene oxide) as a stabilizing and hydrophilic block in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). By adjusting the hydrophobic block length and concentration, we obtained a range of morphologies from spherical to wormlike micelles, to vesicles. Remarkably, the secondary structure of polypeptides greatly influenced the final morphology of the assemblies. Surprisingly, wormlike micellar morphologies were obtained for a wide range of methionine block lengths and solid contents, with spherical micelles restricted to very short hydrophobic lengths. Wormlike micelles further assembled into oxidation-sensitive, self-standing gels in the reaction pot. Both vesicles and wormlike micelles obtained using this method demonstrated to degrade under controlled oxidant conditions, which would expand their biomedical applications such as in sustained drug release or as cellular scaffolds in tissue engineering.

JTD Keywords: alpha-amino-acid, hydrogels, leuchs anhydrides, platform, polypeptides, transformation, triggered cargo release, Amino acids, Amphiphilics, Biocompatibility, Biodegradability, Block lengths, Controlled drug delivery, Dimethyl sulfoxide, Ethylene, Gels, Hydrophobicity, Medical nanotechnology, Methionine, Micelles, Morphology, One-pot synthesis, Organic solvents, Oxidation, Physiological condition, Polyethylene oxides, Post-polymerization, Ring-opening polymerization, Scaffolds (biology), Self assembly, Stimuli-responsive properties, Supramolecular chemistry, Supramolecular gels, Supramolecular micelles, Wormlike micelle


Vukomanovic M, Cendra MdM, Baelo A, Torrents E, (2021). Nano-engineering stable contact-based antimicrobials: Chemistry at the interface between nano-gold and bacteria Colloids And Surfaces B-Biointerfaces 208, 112083

Contact-based antimicrobials, as antibiotic-free technologies that use non-specific interactions with bacterial cells to exert antimicrobial activity, are a prospective solution in fighting the global issue of bacterial resistance. A very simplified approach to their design considers the direct bonding of cationic guanidine-containing amino acids to the surface of nano-gold carriers. The structure enables antimicrobial activity due to a high density of cationic surface charges. This opens a set of novel questions that are important for their effective engineering, particularly regarding (i) chemistry and events that take place at the interface between NPs and cells, (ii) the direct influence of a charge (and its change) on interactions with bacterial and mammalian cells, and (iii) the stability of structures (and their antimicrobial activity) in the presence of enzymes, which are addressed in this paper. Because of the ability of amino acid-functionalized nano-gold to retain structural and functional activity, even after exposure to a range of physicochemical stimuli, they provide an excellent nanotechnological platform for designing highly effective contact-based antimicrobials and their applications.

JTD Keywords: agents, antibiotic-free technology, arginine, charged amino acids, contact-based antimicrobials, discovery, enzyme-resistant antimicrobials, functionalized gold, peptides, polymers, resistant, Antibiotic-free technology, Charged amino acids, Contact-based antimicrobials, Enzyme-resistant antimicrobials, Functionalized gold, Nanoparticles


Sheehan F, Sementa D, Jain A, Kumar M, Tayarani-Najjaran M, Kroiss D, Ulijn RV, (2021). Peptide-Based Supramolecular Systems Chemistry Chemical Reviews 121, 13869-13914

Peptide-based supramolecular systems chemistry seeks to mimic the ability of life forms to use conserved sets of building blocks and chemical reactions to achieve a bewildering array of functions. Building on the design principles for short peptide-based nanomaterials with properties, such as self-assembly, recognition, catalysis, and actuation, are increasingly available. Peptide-based supramolecular systems chemistry is starting to address the far greater challenge of systems-level design to access complex functions that emerge when multiple reactions and interactions are coordinated and integrated. We discuss key features relevant to systems-level design, including regulating supramolecular order and disorder, development of active and adaptive systems by considering kinetic and thermodynamic design aspects and combinatorial dynamic covalent and noncovalent interactions. Finally, we discuss how structural and dynamic design concepts, including preorganization and induced fit, are critical to the ability to develop adaptive materials with adaptive and tunable photonic, electronic, and catalytic properties. Finally, we highlight examples where multiple features are combined, resulting in chemical systems and materials that display adaptive properties that cannot be achieved without this level of integration.

JTD Keywords: aromatic peptide, biological-properties, chemical control, conformational-analysis, electronic transport, mechanical-properties, perylene bisimide, pro-hyp sequences, residues determine, Self-assembling peptide


Noble Jesus C, Evans R, Forth J, Estarellas C, Gervasio FL, Battaglia G, (2021). Amphiphilic Histidine-Based Oligopeptides Exhibit pH-Reversible Fibril Formation Acs Macro Letters 10, 984-989

We report the design, simulation, synthesis, and reversible self-assembly of nanofibrils using polyhistidine-based oligopeptides. The inclusion of aromatic amino acids in the histidine block produces distinct antiparallel β-strands that lead to the formation of amyloid-like fibrils. The structures undergo self-assembly in response to a change in pH. This creates the potential to produce well-defined fibrils for biotechnological and biomedical applications that are pH-responsive in a physiologically relevant range.

JTD Keywords: peptide, recognition, Amyloid fibrils


Andreu, I, Falcones, B, Hurst, S, Chahare, N, Quiroga, X, Le Roux, AL, Kechagia, Z, Beedle, AEM, Elosegui-Artola, A, Trepat, X, Farre, R, Betz, T, Almendros, I, Roca-Cusachs, P, (2021). The force loading rate drives cell mechanosensing through both reinforcement and cytoskeletal softening Nature Communications 12, 4229

Cell response to force regulates essential processes in health and disease. However, the fundamental mechanical variables that cells sense and respond to remain unclear. Here we show that the rate of force application (loading rate) drives mechanosensing, as predicted by a molecular clutch model. By applying dynamic force regimes to cells through substrate stretching, optical tweezers, and atomic force microscopy, we find that increasing loading rates trigger talin-dependent mechanosensing, leading to adhesion growth and reinforcement, and YAP nuclear localization. However, above a given threshold the actin cytoskeleton softens, decreasing loading rates and preventing reinforcement. By stretching rat lungs in vivo, we show that a similar phenomenon may occur. Our results show that cell sensing of external forces and of passive mechanical parameters (like tissue stiffness) can be understood through the same mechanisms, driven by the properties under force of the mechanosensing molecules involved. Cells sense mechanical forces from their environment, but the precise mechanical variable sensed by cells is unclear. Here, the authors show that cells can sense the rate of force application, known as the loading rate, with effects on YAP nuclear localization and cytoskeletal stiffness remodelling.

JTD Keywords: Actin cytoskeleton, Actin filament, Actin-filament, Adhesion, Animal, Animals, Atomic force microscopy, Breathing, Cell, Cell adhesion, Cell culture, Cell nucleus, Cells, cultured, Cytoplasm, Extracellular-matrix, Fibroblast, Fibroblasts, Fibronectin, Frequency, Gene knockdown, Gene knockdown techniques, Genetics, Germfree animal, Integrin, Intracellular signaling peptides and proteins, Knockout mouse, Lung, Male, Mechanotransduction, Mechanotransduction, cellular, Metabolism, Mice, Mice, knockout, Microscopy, atomic force, Mouse, Optical tweezers, Paxillin, Physiology, Primary cell culture, Pxn protein, mouse, Rat, Rats, Rats, sprague-dawley, Respiration, Signal peptide, Softening, Specific pathogen-free organisms, Sprague dawley rat, Stress, Substrate, Substrate rigidity, Talin, Talin protein, mouse, Tln2 protein, mouse, Traction, Transmission, Ultrastructure, Yap1 protein, rat


Minguela J, Müller DW, Mücklich F, Llanes L, Ginebra MP, Roa JJ, Mas-Moruno C, (2021). Peptidic biofunctionalization of laser patterned dental zirconia: A biochemical-topographical approach Materials Science & Engineering C-Materials For Biological Applications 125, 112096

A dual approach employing peptidic biofunctionalization and laser micro-patterns on dental zirconia was explored, with the aim of providing a flexible tool to improve tissue integration of restorations. Direct laser interference patterning with a femtosecond Ti:Sapphire laser was employed, and two periodic grooved patterns were produced with a periodicity of 3 and 10 μm. A platform containing the cell-adhesive RGD and the osteogenic DWIVA peptides was used to functionalize the grooved surfaces. Topography and surface damage were characterized by confocal laser scanning (CLSM), scanning electron and scanning transmission electron microscopy techniques. The surface patterns exhibited a high homogeneity and subsurface damage was found in the form of nano-cracks and nano-pores, at the bottom of the valleys. Accelerated tests in water steam were carried out to assess hydrothermal degradation resistance, which slightly decreased after the laser treatment. Interestingly, the detrimental effects of the laser modification were reverted by a post-laser thermal treatment. The attachment of the molecule was verified trough fluorescence CLSM and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Finally, the biological properties of the surfaces were studied in human mesenchymal stem cells. Cell adhesion, morphology, migration and differentiation were investigated. Cells on grooved surfaces displayed an elongated morphology and aligned along the patterns. On these surfaces, migration was greatly enhanced along the grooves, but also highly restricted in the perpendicular direction as compared to flat specimens. After biofunctionalization, cell number and cell area increased and well-developed cell cytoskeletons were observed. However, no effects on cell migration were found for the peptidic platform. Although some osteogenic potential was found in specimens grooved with a periodicity of 10 μm, the largest effects were observed from the biomolecule, which favored upregulation of several genes related to osteoblastic differentiation in all the surfaces.

JTD Keywords: alumina toughened zirconia, cell alignment, grain-size, implants, interference, laser patterning, osteogenic differentiation, osteointegration, peptides, surface functionalization, surface-topography, tissue, titanium surface, Laser patterning, Low-temperature degradation, Osteointegration, Peptides, Surface functionalization, Zirconia


Enshaei H, Puiggalí-Jou A, del Valle LJ, Turon P, Saperas N, Alemán C, (2021). Nanotheranostic Interface Based on Antibiotic-Loaded Conducting Polymer Nanoparticles for Real-Time Monitoring of Bacterial Growth Inhibition Advanced Healthcare Materials 10, 2001636

© 2020 Wiley-VCH GmbH Conducting polymers have been increasingly used as biologically interfacing electrodes for biomedical applications due to their excellent and fast electrochemical response, reversible doping–dedoping characteristics, high stability, easy processability, and biocompatibility. These advantageous properties can be used for the rapid detection and eradication of infections associated to bacterial growth since these are a tremendous burden for individual patients as well as the global healthcare system. Herein, a smart nanotheranostic electroresponsive platform, which consists of chloramphenicol (CAM)-loaded in poly(3,4-ethylendioxythiophene) nanoparticles (PEDOT/CAM NPs) for concurrent release of the antibiotic and real-time monitoring of bacterial growth is presented. PEDOT/CAM NPs, with an antibiotic loading content of 11.9 ± 1.3% w/w, are proved to inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli and Streptococcus sanguinis due to the antibiotic release by cyclic voltammetry. Furthermore, in situ monitoring of bacterial activity is achieved through the electrochemical detection of β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, a redox active specie produced by the microbial metabolism that diffuse to the extracellular medium. According to these results, the proposed nanotheranostic platform has great potential for real-time monitoring of the response of bacteria to the released antibiotic, contributing to the evolution of the personalized medicine.

JTD Keywords: bacterial detection, chloramphenicol, conducting polymers, drug, drug release, electrochemical sensors, electrochemistry, electrostimulated release, mechanism, peptide, polythiophene, sensor, sulfonate, Bacterial detection, Chloramphenicol, Conducting polymers, Controlled-release, Drug release, Electrochemical sensors, Electrostimulated release, Polythiophene


Oliver-Cervelló L, Martin-Gómez H, Reyes L, Noureddine F, Ada Cavalcanti-Adam E, Ginebra MP, Mas-Moruno C, (2021). An Engineered Biomimetic Peptide Regulates Cell Behavior by Synergistic Integrin and Growth Factor Signaling Advanced Healthcare Materials 10, 2001757

© 2020 Wiley-VCH GmbH Recreating the healing microenvironment is essential to regulate cell–material interactions and ensure the integration of biomaterials. To repair bone, such bioactivity can be achieved by mimicking its extracellular matrix (ECM) and by stimulating integrin and growth factor (GF) signaling. However, current approaches relying on the use of GFs, such as bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2), entail clinical risks. Here, a biomimetic peptide integrating the RGD cell adhesive sequence and the osteogenic DWIVA motif derived from the wrist epitope of BMP-2 is presented. The approach offers the advantage of having a spatial control over the single binding of integrins and BMP receptors. Such multifunctional platform is designed to incorporate 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine to bind metallic oxides with high affinity in a one step process. Functionalization of glass substrates with the engineered peptide is characterized by physicochemical methods, proving a successful surface modification. The biomimetic interfaces significantly improve the adhesion of C2C12 cells, inhibit myotube formation, and activate the BMP-dependent signaling via p38. These effects are not observed on surfaces displaying only one bioactive motif, a mixture of both motifs or soluble DWIVA. These data prove the biological potential of recreating the ECM and engaging in integrin and GF crosstalk via molecular-based mimics.

JTD Keywords: binding, biomaterials, biomimetic peptides, bone, cell adhesion, cell differentiation, differentiation, dwiva, multifunctional coatings, osseointegration, osteoblasts, rgd, surface, surface functionalization, Biomimetic peptides, Cell adhesion, Cell differentiation, Dwiva, Matrix-bound bmp-2, Rgd, Surface functionalization


Garcia J, Fernández-Pradas JM, Lladó A, Serra P, Zalvidea D, Kogan MJ, Giralt E, Sánchez-Navarro M, (2021). The Combined Use of Gold Nanoparticles and Infrared Radiation Enables Cytosolic Protein Delivery Chemistry-A European Journal 27, 4670-4675

© 2020 Wiley-VCH GmbH Cytosolic protein delivery remains elusive. The inability of most proteins to cross the cellular membrane is a huge hurdle. Here we explore the unique photothermal properties of gold nanorods (AuNRs) to trigger cytosolic delivery of proteins. Both partners, protein and AuNRs, are modified with a protease-resistant cell-penetrating peptide with nuclear targeting properties to induce internalization. Once internalized, spatiotemporal control of protein release is achieved by near-infrared laser irradiation in the safe second biological window. Importantly, catalytic amounts of AuNRs are sufficient to trigger cytosolic protein delivery. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that AuNRs with their maximum of absorption in the second biological window are used to deliver proteins into the intracellular space. This strategy represents a powerful tool for the cytosolic delivery of virtually any class of protein.

JTD Keywords: cell-penetrating peptide, cytosolic delivery, gold nanorod, near-infrared irradiation, Cell-penetrating peptide, Cytosolic delivery, Gold nanorod, Near-infrared irradiation


Blanco-Fernandez B, Gaspar VM, Engel E, Mano JF, (2021). Proteinaceous Hydrogels for Bioengineering Advanced 3D Tumor Models Advanced Science 8, 2003129

© 2020 The Authors. Advanced Science published by Wiley-VCH GmbH The establishment of tumor microenvironment using biomimetic in vitro models that recapitulate key tumor hallmarks including the tumor supporting extracellular matrix (ECM) is in high demand for accelerating the discovery and preclinical validation of more effective anticancer therapeutics. To date, ECM-mimetic hydrogels have been widely explored for 3D in vitro disease modeling owing to their bioactive properties that can be further adapted to the biochemical and biophysical properties of native tumors. Gathering on this momentum, herein the current landscape of intrinsically bioactive protein and peptide hydrogels that have been employed for 3D tumor modeling are discussed. Initially, the importance of recreating such microenvironment and the main considerations for generating ECM-mimetic 3D hydrogel in vitro tumor models are showcased. A comprehensive discussion focusing protein, peptide, or hybrid ECM-mimetic platforms employed for modeling cancer cells/stroma cross-talk and for the preclinical evaluation of candidate anticancer therapies is also provided. Further development of tumor-tunable, proteinaceous or peptide 3D microtesting platforms with microenvironment-specific biophysical and biomolecular cues will contribute to better mimic the in vivo scenario, and improve the predictability of preclinical screening of generalized or personalized therapeutics.

JTD Keywords: 3d in vitro models, cancers, hydrogels, peptides, 3d in vitro models, Cancers, Hydrogels, Peptides, Proteins


Qamar B, Solomon M, Marin A, Fuerst TR, Andrianov AK, Muro S, (2021). Intracellular delivery of active proteins by polyphosphazene polymers Pharmaceutics 13, 249

© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Achieving intracellular delivery of protein therapeutics within cells remains a significant challenge. Although custom formulations are available for some protein therapeutics, the development of non‐toxic delivery systems that can incorporate a variety of active protein cargo and maintain their stability, is a topic of great relevance. This study utilized ionic polyphosphazenes (PZ) that can assemble into supramolecular complexes through non‐covalent interactions with different types of protein cargo. We tested a PEGylated graft copolymer (PZ‐PEG) and a pyrrolidone containing linear derivative (PZ‐PYR) for their ability to intracellularly deliver FITC‐avidin, a model protein. In endothelial cells, PZ‐PYR/protein exhibited both faster internalization and higher uptake levels than PZ‐PEG/protein, while in cancer cells both polymers achieved similar uptake levels over time, although the internalization rate was slower for PZ‐PYR/protein. Uptake was mediated by endocytosis through multiple mechanisms, PZ‐PEG/avidin colocalized more profusely with endo-lysosomes, and PZ‐PYR/avidin achieved greater cytosolic delivery. Consequently, a PZ‐PYR-delivered anti‐F‐actin antibody was able to bind to cytosolic actin filaments without needing cell permeabilization. Similarly, a cell‐impermeable Bax‐BH3 peptide known to induce apoptosis, decreased cell viability when complexed with PZ‐PYR, demonstrating endo‐lysosomal escape. These biodegradable PZs were non‐toxic to cells and represent a promising platform for drug delivery of protein therapeutics.

JTD Keywords: cytosolic delivery, cytotoxicity, delivery of apoptotic peptides, endosomal escape, intracellular delivery of antibody, intracellular protein delivery, Cytosolic delivery, Cytotoxicity, Delivery of apoptotic peptides, Endosomal escape, Intracellular delivery of antibody, Intracellular protein delivery, Polyphosphazene polymers


Soriente A, Amodio SP, Fasolino I, Raucci MG, Demitri C, Engel E, Ambrosio L, (2021). Chitosan/PEGDA based scaffolds as bioinspired materials to control in vitro angiogenesis Materials Science & Engineering C-Materials For Biological Applications 118, 111420

© 2020 Elsevier B.V. In the current work, our purpose was based on the assessment of bioactive chitosan (CS)/Poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) based scaffolds ability to stimulate in vitro angiogenesis process. The bioactivation of the scaffolds was accomplished by using organic (BMP-2 peptide) and inorganic (hydroxyapatite nanoparticles) cues. In particular, the properties of the materials in terms of biological response promotion on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were studied by using in vitro angiogenesis tests based on cell growth and proliferation. Furthermore, our interest was to examine the scaffolds capability to modulate two important steps involved in angiogenesis process: migration and tube formation of cells. Our data underlined that bioactive signals on CS/PEGDA scaffolds surface induce a desirable effect on angiogenic response concerning angiogenic marker expression (CD-31) and endothelial tissue formation (tube formation). Taken together, the results emphasized the concept that bioactive CS/PEGDA scaffolds may be novel implants for stimulating neovascularization of tissue-engineered constructs in regenerative medicine field.

JTD Keywords: angiogenesis, bmp-2 peptide, chitosan/pegda based scaffolds, human umbilical vein endothelial cells huvecs, Angiogenesis, Bmp-2 peptide, Chitosan/pegda based scaffolds, Human umbilical vein endothelial cells huvecs, Osteogenesis


Ben Hamouda S, Vargas A, Boivin R, Miglino MA, da Palma RK, Lavoie JP, (2021). Recellularization of Bronchial Extracellular Matrix With Primary Bronchial Smooth Muscle Cells Journal Of Equine Veterinary Science 96, 103313

© 2020 Elsevier Inc. Severe asthma is associated with an increased airway smooth muscle (ASM) mass and altered composition of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Studies have indicated that ECM-ASM cell interactions contribute to this remodeling and its limited reversibility with current therapy. Three-dimensional matrices allow the study of complex cellular responses to different stimuli in an almost natural environment. Our goal was to obtain acellular bronchial matrices and then develop a recellularization protocol with ASM cells. We studied equine bronchi as horses spontaneously develop a human asthma-like disease. The bronchi were decellularized using Triton/Sodium Deoxycholate. The obtained scaffolds retained their anatomical and histological properties. Using immunohistochemistry and a semi-quantitative score to compare native bronchi to scaffolds revealed no significant variation for matrixial proteins. DNA quantification and electrophoresis revealed that most DNA was 29.6 ng/mg of tissue ± 5.6, with remaining fragments of less than 100 bp. Primary ASM cells were seeded on the scaffolds. Histological analysis of the recellularizations showed that ASM cells migrated and proliferated primarily in the decellularized smooth muscle matrix, suggesting a chemotactic effect of the scaffolds. This is the first report of primary ASM cells preferentially repopulating the smooth muscle matrix layer in bronchial matrices. This protocol is now being used to study the molecular interactions occurring between the asthmatic ECMs and ASM to identify effectors of asthmatic bronchial remodeling.

JTD Keywords: 2d, airway smooth muscle cells, asthma, decellularization, disease, elastin, extracellular matrix, lung scaffolds, migration, peptide, recellularization, tissues, Airway smooth muscle cells, Asthma, Culture-systems, Decellularization, Extracellular matrix, Recellularization


Duro-Castano, A., Moreira Leite, D., Forth, J., Deng, Y., Matias, D., Noble Jesus, C., Battaglia, G., (2020). Designing peptide nanoparticles for efficient brain delivery Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews 160, 52-77

The targeted delivery of therapeutic compounds to the brain is arguably the most significant open problem in drug delivery today. Nanoparticles (NPs) based on peptides and designed using the emerging principles of molecular engineering show enormous promise in overcoming many of the barriers to brain delivery faced by NPs made of more traditional materials. However, shortcomings in our understanding of peptide self-assembly and blood–brain barrier (BBB) transport mechanisms pose significant obstacles to progress in this area. In this review, we discuss recent work in engineering peptide nanocarriers for the delivery of therapeutic compounds to the brain: from synthesis, to self-assembly, to in vivo studies, as well as discussing in detail the biological hurdles that a nanoparticle must overcome to reach the brain.

JTD Keywords: Alzheimer's disease, Blood-brain barrier, Drug delivery, Glioma, Parkinson's disease, Peptides, Self-assembly, Transcytosis


Rubí-Sans, G., Recha-Sancho, L., Pérez-Amodio, S., Mateos-Timoneda, M. Á., Semino, C. E., Engel, E., (2020). Development of a three-dimensional bioengineered platform for articular cartilage regeneration Biomolecules 10, (1), 52

Degenerative cartilage pathologies are nowadays a major problem for the world population. Factors such as age, genetics or obesity can predispose people to suffer from articular cartilage degeneration, which involves severe pain, loss of mobility and consequently, a loss of quality of life. Current strategies in medicine are focused on the partial or total replacement of affected joints, physiotherapy and analgesics that do not address the underlying pathology. In an attempt to find an alternative therapy to restore or repair articular cartilage functions, the use of bioengineered tissues is proposed. In this study we present a three-dimensional (3D) bioengineered platform combining a 3D printed polycaprolactone (PCL) macrostructure with RAD16-I, a soft nanofibrous self-assembling peptide, as a suitable microenvironment for human mesenchymal stem cells’ (hMSC) proliferation and differentiation into chondrocytes. This 3D bioengineered platform allows for long-term hMSC culture resulting in chondrogenic differentiation and has mechanical properties resembling native articular cartilage. These promising results suggest that this approach could be potentially used in articular cartilage repair and regeneration.

JTD Keywords: 3D printing, Chondrogenic differentiation, Polycaprolactone, RAD16-I self-assembling peptide


Cofiño, C., Perez-Amodio, S., Semino, C. E., Engel, E., Mateos-Timoneda, M. A., (2019). Development of a self-assembled peptide/methylcellulose-based bioink for 3D bioprinting Macromolecular Materials and Engineering 304, (11), 1900353

The introduction of 3D bioprinting to fabricate living constructs with tailored architecture has provided a new paradigm for biofabrication, with the potential to overcome several drawbacks of conventional scaffold-based tissue regeneration strategies. Hydrogel-based materials are suitable candidates regarding cell biocompatibility but often display poor mechanical properties. Self-assembling peptides are a promising source of biomaterials to be used as 3D scaffolds based on their similarity to extracellular matrices (structurally and mechanically). In this study, an advanced bioink for biofabrication is presented based on the optimization of a RAD16-I-based biomaterial. The strategy followed to build 3D predefined structures by 3D printing is based on an enhancement of bioink viscosity by adding methylcellulose (MC) to a RAD16-I solution. The resultant constructs display high shape fidelity and stability and embedded human mesenchymal stem cells present high viability after 7 days of culture. Moreover, cells are also able to differentiate to the adipogenic lineage, suggesting the suitability of this novel biomaterial for soft tissue engineering applications.

JTD Keywords: 3D bioprinting, Biofabrication, Bioinks, Self-assembling peptides, Tissue engineering


Aguiar, L., Biosca, A., Lantero, E., Gut, J., Vale, N., Rosenthal, P. J., Nogueira, F., Andreu, D., Fernàndez-Busquets, X., Gomes, P., (2019). Coupling the antimalarial cell penetrating peptide TP10 to classical antimalarial drugs primaquine and chloroquine produces strongly hemolytic conjugates Molecules 24, (24), 4559

Recently, we disclosed primaquine cell penetrating peptide conjugates that were more potent than parent primaquine against liver stage Plasmodium parasites and non-toxic to hepatocytes. The same strategy was now applied to the blood-stage antimalarial chloroquine, using a wide set of peptides, including TP10, a cell penetrating peptide with intrinsic antiplasmodial activity. Chloroquine-TP10 conjugates displaying higher antiplasmodial activity than the parent TP10 peptide were identified, at the cost of an increased hemolytic activity, which was further confirmed for their primaquine analogues. Fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry suggest that these drug-peptide conjugates strongly bind, and likely destroy, erythrocyte membranes. Taken together, the results herein reported put forward that coupling antimalarial aminoquinolines to cell penetrating peptides delivers hemolytic conjugates. Hence, despite their widely reported advantages as carriers for many different types of cargo, from small drugs to biomacromolecules, cell penetrating peptides seem unsuitable for safe intracellular delivery of antimalarial aminoquinolines due to hemolysis issues. This highlights the relevance of paying attention to hemolytic effects of cell penetrating peptide-drug conjugates.

JTD Keywords: Antimalarial, Cell penetrating peptide, Chloroquine, Erythrocyte fluorescence, Flow cytometry, Hemolysis, Microscopy, Plasmodium, Primaquine, Red blood cell


Hoyos-Nogués, Mireia, Buxadera-Palomero, Judit, Ginebra, Maria-Pau, Manero, José María, Gil, F. J., Mas-Moruno, Carlos, (2018). All-in-one trifunctional strategy: A cell adhesive, bacteriostatic and bactericidal coating for titanium implants Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces 169, 30-40

Strategies to inhibit initial bacterial adhesion are extremely important to prevent infection on biomaterial surfaces. However, the simultaneous attraction of desired eukaryotic cells remains a challenge for successful biomaterial-host tissue integration. Here we describe a method for the development of a trifunctional coating that repels contaminating bacteria, kills those that adhere, and promotes osteoblast adhesion. To this end, titanium surfaces were functionalized by electrodeposition of an antifouling polyethylene glycol (PEG) layer and subsequent binding of a peptidic platform with cell-adhesive and bactericidal properties. The physicochemical characterization of the samples via SEM, contact angle, FTIR and XPS analysis verified the successful binding of the PEG layer and the biomolecules, without altering the morphology and topography of the samples. PEG coatings inhibited protein adsorption and osteoblast-like (SaOS-2) attachment; however, the presence of cell adhesive domains rescued osteoblast adhesion, yielding higher values of cell attachment and spreading compared to controls (p < 0.05). Finally, the antibacterial potential of the coating was measured by live/dead assays and SEM using S. sanguinis as a model of early colonizer in oral biofilms. The presence of PEG layers significantly reduced bacterial attachment on the surfaces (p < 0.05). This antibacterial potential was further increased by the bactericidal peptide, yielding values of bacterial adhesion below 0.2% (p < 0.05). The balance between the risk of infection and the optimal osteointegration of a biomaterial is often described as “the race for the surface”, in which contaminating bacteria and host tissue cells compete to colonize the implant. In the present work, we have developed a multifunctional coating for a titanium surface that promotes the attachment and spreading of osteoblasts, while very efficiently inhibits bacterial colonization, thus holding promise for application in bone replacing applications.

JTD Keywords: Polyethylene glycol, Antibacterial, Osteointegration, Multifunctionality, Peptides, Titanium


Duro-Castano, Aroa, Nebot, Vicent J., Niño-Pariente, Amaya, Armiñán, Ana, Arroyo-Crespo, Juan J., Paul, Alison, Feiner-Gracia, Natalia, Albertazzi, Lorenzo, Vicent, María J., (2017). Capturing “extraordinary” soft-assembled charge-like polypeptides as a strategy for nanocarrier design Advanced Materials 29, (39), 1702888

The rational design of nanomedicines is a challenging task given the complex architectures required for the construction of nanosized carriers with embedded therapeutic properties and the complex interface of these materials with the biological environment. Herein, an unexpected charge-like attraction mechanism of self-assembly for star-shaped polyglutamates in nonsalty aqueous solutions is identified, which matches the ubiquitous “ordinary–extraordinary” phenomenon previously described by physicists. For the first time, a bottom-up methodology for the stabilization of these nanosized soft-assembled star-shaped polyglutamates is also described, enabling the translation of theoretical research into nanomaterials with applicability within the drug-delivery field. Covalent capture of these labile assemblies provides access to unprecedented architectures to be used as nanocarriers. The enhanced in vitro and in vivo properties of these novel nanoconstructs as drug-delivery systems highlight the potential of this approach for tumor-localized as well as lymphotropic delivery.

JTD Keywords: Charge-like, Drug delivery, Polymer therapeutics, Polypeptides, Self-assembly


Aragonès, Albert C., Medina, Ernesto, Ferrer-Huerta, Miriam, Gimeno, Nuria, Teixidó, Meritxell, Palma, Julio L., Tao, Nongjian, Ugalde, Jesus M., Giralt, Ernest, Díez-Pérez, Ismael, Mujica, Vladimiro, (2017). Measuring the spin-polarization power of a single chiral molecule Small 13, (2), 1602519

The electronic spin filtering capability of a single chiral helical peptide is measured. A ferromagnetic electrode source is employed to inject spin-polarized electrons in an asymmetric single-molecule junction bridging an α-helical peptide sequence of known chirality. The conductance comparison between both isomers allows the direct determination of the polarization power of an individual chiral molecule.

JTD Keywords: Alpha-helical peptides, Chiral transport, Single-molecule wires, Spin-polarization power, Spin-polarized transmission


Hoyos-Nogués, M., Velasco, F., Ginebra, M. P., Manero, J. M., Gil, F. J., Mas-Moruno, C., (2017). Regenerating bone via multifunctional coatings: The blending of cell integration and bacterial inhibition properties on the surface of biomaterials ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 9, (26), 21618-21630

In dentistry and orthopedics, it is well accepted that implant fixation is a major goal. However, an emerging concern is bacterial infection. Infection of metallic implants can be catastrophic and significantly reduce patient quality of life. Accordingly, in this work, we focus on multifunctional coatings to simultaneously address and mitigate both these problems. We have developed a tailor-made peptide-based chemical platform that integrates the well-known RGD cell adhesive sequence and the lactoferrin-derived LF1-11 antimicrobial peptide. The platform was covalently grafted on titanium via silanization and the functionalization process characterized by contact angle, XPS, and QCM-D. The presence of the platform statistically improved the adhesion, proliferation and mineralization of osteoblast-like cells compared to control surfaces. At the same time, colonization by representative bacterial strains was significantly reduced on the surfaces. Furthermore, the biological potency of the multifunctional platform was verified in a co-culture in vitro model. Our findings demonstrate that this multifunctional approach can be useful to functionalize biomaterials to both improve cell integration and reduce the risk of bacterial infection.

JTD Keywords: Antimicrobial peptides, Cell adhesive peptides, Multifunctionality, Osseointegration, Surface functionalization


Castellanos, M. I., Mas-Moruno, C., Grau, A., Serra-Picamal, X., Trepat, X., Albericio, F., Joner, M., Gil, F. J., Ginebra, M. P., Manero, J. M., Pegueroles, M., (2017). Functionalization of CoCr surfaces with cell adhesive peptides to promote HUVECs adhesion and proliferation Applied Surface Science , 393, 82-92

Biomimetic surface modification with peptides that have specific cell-binding moieties is a promising approach to improve endothelialization of metal-based stents. In this study, we functionalized CoCr surfaces with RGDS, REDV, YIGSR peptides and their combinations to promote endothelial cells (ECs) adhesion and proliferation. An extensive characterization of the functionalized surfaces was performed by XPS analysis, surface charge and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D), which demonstrated the successful immobilization of the peptides to the surface. Cell studies demonstrated that the covalent functionalization of CoCr surfaces with an equimolar combination of RGDS and YIGSR represents the most powerful strategy to enhance the early stages of ECs adhesion and proliferation, indicating a positive synergistic effect between the two peptide motifs. Although these peptide sequences slightly increased smooth muscle cells (SMCs) adhesion, these values were ten times lower than those observed for ECs. The combination of RGDS with the REDV sequence did not show synergistic effects in promoting the adhesion or proliferation of ECs. The strategy presented in this study holds great potential to overcome clinical limitations of current metal stents by enhancing their capacity to support surface endothelialization.

JTD Keywords: Cell adhesive peptides, CoCr alloy, Endothelialization, HUVEC proliferation, SMCs adhesion, Surface functionalization


Fraioli, R., Dashnyam, K., Kim, J. H., Perez, R. A., Kim, H. W., Gil, J., Ginebra, M. P., Manero, J. M., Mas-Moruno, C., (2016). Surface guidance of stem cell behavior: Chemically tailored co-presentation of integrin-binding peptides stimulates osteogenic differentiation in vitro and bone formation in vivo Acta Biomaterialia 43, 269-281

Surface modification stands out as a versatile technique to create instructive biomaterials that are able to actively direct stem cell fate. Chemical functionalization of titanium has been used in this work to stimulate the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) into the osteoblastic lineage, by covalently anchoring a synthetic double-branched molecule (PTF) to the metal that allows a finely controlled presentation of peptidic motifs. In detail, the effect of the RGD adhesive peptide and its synergy motif PHSRN is studied, comparing a random distribution of the two peptides with the chemically-tailored disposition within the custom made synthetic platform, which mimics the interspacing between the motifs observed in fibronectin. Contact angle measurement and XPS analysis are used to prove the efficiency of functionalization. We demonstrate that, by rationally designing ligands, stem cell response can be efficiently guided towards the osteogenic phenotype: In vitro, PTF-functionalized surfaces support hMSCs adhesion, with higher cell area and formation of focal contacts, expression of the integrin receptor α5β1 and the osteogenic marker Runx2, and deposition a highly mineralized matrix, reaching values of mineralization comparable to fibronectin. Our strategy is also demonstrated to be efficient in promoting new bone growth in vivo in a rat calvarial defect. These results highlight the efficacy of chemical control over the presentation of bioactive peptides; such systems may be used to engineer bioactive surfaces with improved osseointegrative properties, or can be easily tuned to generate multi-functional coatings requiring a tailored disposition of the peptidic motifs. Statement of significance Organic coatings have been proposed as a solution to foster osseointegration of orthopedic implants. Among them, extracellular matrix-derived peptide motifs are an interesting biomimetic strategy to harness cell-surface interactions. Nonetheless, the combination of multiple peptide motifs in a controlled manner is essential to achieve receptor specificity and fully exploit the potentiality of synthetic peptides. Herein, we covalently graft to titanium a double branched molecule to guide stem cell fate in vitro and generate an osseoinductive titanium surface in vivo. Such synthetic ligand allows for the simultaneous presentation of two bioactive motifs, thus is ideal to test the effect of synergic sequences, such as RGD and PHSRN, and is a clear example of the versatility and feasibility of rationally designed biomolecules.

JTD Keywords: hMSCs, Integrin-binding peptides, Osseointegration, RGD-PHSRN, Titanium


Tahirbegi, I.B., Pardo, W.A., Alvira, M., Mir, M., Samitier, J., (2016). Amyloid Aβ 42, a promoter of magnetite nanoparticle formation in Alzheimer's disease Nanotechnology 27, (46), 465102

The accumulation of iron oxides - mainly magnetite - with amyloid peptide is a key process in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the mechanism for biogeneration of magnetite inside the brain of someone with AD is still unclear. The iron-storing protein ferritin has been identified as the main magnetite-storing molecule. However, accumulations of magnetite in AD are not correlated with an increase in ferritin, leaving this question unresolved. Here we demonstrate the key role of amyloid peptide Aβ 42, one of the main hallmarks of AD, in the generation of magnetite nanoparticles in the absence of ferritin. The capacity of amyloid peptide to bind and concentrate iron hydroxides, the basis for the formation of magnetite, benefits the spontaneous synthesis of these nanoparticles, even under unfavorable conditions for their formation. Using scanning and transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy and magnetic force microscopy we characterized the capacity of amyloid peptide Aβ 42 to promote magnetite formation.

JTD Keywords: Alzheimer disease (AD), amyloid peptide Ab42, magnetite nanoparticle, metallobiomolecule, iron oxide, neurodegenerative brain diseases


Melo, E., Cárdenes, N., Garreta, E., Luque, T., Rojas, M., Navajas, D., Farré, R., (2014). Inhomogeneity of local stiffness in the extracellular matrix scaffold of fibrotic mouse lungs Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials , 37, 186-195

Lung disease models are useful to study how cell engraftment, proliferation and differentiation are modulated in lung bioengineering. The aim of this work was to characterize the local stiffness of decellularized lungs in aged and fibrotic mice. Mice (2- and 24-month old; 14 of each) with lung fibrosis (N=20) and healthy controls (N=8) were euthanized after 11 days of intratracheal bleomycin (fibrosis) or saline (controls) infusion. The lungs were excised, decellularized by a conventional detergent-based (sodium-dodecyl sulfate) procedure and slices of the acellular lungs were prepared to measure the local stiffness by means of atomic force microscopy. The local stiffness of the different sites in acellular fibrotic lungs was very inhomogeneous within the lung and increased according to the degree of the structural fibrotic lesion. Local stiffness of the acellular lungs did not show statistically significant differences caused by age. The group of mice most affected by fibrosis exhibited local stiffness that were ~2-fold higher than in the control mice: from 27.2±1.64 to 64.8±7.1. kPa in the alveolar septa, from 56.6±4.6 to 99.9±11.7. kPa in the visceral pleura, from 41.1±8.0 to 105.2±13.6. kPa in the tunica adventitia, and from 79.3±7.2 to 146.6±28.8. kPa in the tunica intima. Since acellular lungs from mice with bleomycin-induced fibrosis present considerable micromechanical inhomogeneity, this model can be a useful tool to better investigate how different degrees of extracellular matrix lesion modulate cell fate in the process of organ bioengineering from decellularized lungs.

JTD Keywords: Ageing, Atomic force microscopy, Decellularization, Lung fibrosis, Tissue engineering, Atomic force microscopy, Biological organs, Peptides, Sodium dodecyl sulfate, Sodium sulfate, Tissue engineering, Ageing, Decellularization, Extracellular matrices, Healthy controls, Inhomogeneities, Lung fibrosis, Micro-mechanical, Statistically significant difference, Mammals, bleomycin, adventitia, animal experiment, animal model, article, atomic force microscopy, bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, cell fate, controlled study, extracellular matrix, female, intima, lung alveolus, lung fibrosis, lung mechanics, mechanical probe, microenvironment, mouse, nonhuman, pleura, priority journal, rigidity, tissue engineering


Nevola, L., Martín-Quirós, A., Eckelt, K., Camarero, N., Tosi, S., Llobet, A., Giralt, E., Gorostiza, P., (2013). Light-regulated stapled peptides to inhibit protein-protein interactions involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis Angewandte Chemie - International Edition 52, (30), 7704-7708

Control of membrane traffic: Photoswitchable inhibitors of protein-protein interactions were applied to photoregulate clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) in living cells. Traffic light (TL) peptides acting as "stop" and "go" signals for membrane traffic can be used to dissect the role of CME in receptor internalization and in cell growth, division, and differentiation.

JTD Keywords: Clathrin-mediated endocytosis, Optopharmacology, Peptides, Photoswitches, Protein-protein interactions


Mir, Mònica , Tahirbegi, Islam Bogachan , Valle-Delgado, Juan José , Fernàndez-Busquets, X., Samitier, Josep , (2012). In vitro study of magnetite-amyloid β complex formation Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine 8, (6), 974-980

Biogenic magnetite (Fe3O4) has been identified in human brain tissue. However, abnormal concentration of magnetite nanoparticles in the brain has been observed in different neurodegenerative pathologies. In the case of Alzheimer's disease (AD), these magnetic nanoparticles have been identified attached to the characteristic brain plaques, which are mainly formed by fibrils of amyloid β peptide (Aβ). However, few clues about the formation of the magnetite-Aβ complex have been reported. We have investigated the interaction between these important players in the AD with superconducting quantum interference, scanning electron microscope, surface plasmon resonance, and magnetic force microscopy. The results support the notion that the magnetite-Aβ complex is created before the synthesis of the magnetic nanoparticles, bringing a highly stable interaction of this couple.

JTD Keywords: Alzheimer's disease, Biogenic magnetite, Amyloid β peptide (Aβ), Superconducting quantum interference, Scanning electron microscope, Surface plasmon resonance, Magnetic force microscopy


Valle-Delgado, J. J., Liepina, I., Lapidus, D., Sabaté, R., Ventura, S., Samitier, J., Fernàndez-Busquets, X., (2012). Self-assembly of human amylin-derived peptides studied by atomic force microscopy and single molecule force spectroscopy Soft Matter 8, (4), 1234-1242

The self-assembly of peptides and proteins into amyloid fibrils of nanometric thickness and up to several micrometres in length, a phenomenon widely observed in biological systems, has recently aroused a growing interest in nanotechnology and nanomedicine. Here we have applied atomic force microscopy and single molecule force spectroscopy to study the amyloidogenesis of a peptide derived from human amylin and of its reverse sequence. The spontaneous formation of protofibrils and their orientation along well-defined directions on graphite and DMSO-coated graphite substrates make the studied peptides interesting candidates for nanotechnological applications. The measured binding forces between peptides correlate with the number of hydrogen bonds between individual peptides inside the fibril structure according to molecular dynamics simulations.

JTD Keywords: Amyloid fibril, Amyloidogenesis, Binding forces, Fibril structure, Graphite substrate, Molecular dynamics simulations, Nanometrics, Protofibrils, Single molecule force spectroscopy, Spontaneous formation, Atomic force microscopy, Atomic spectroscopy, Graphite, Hydrogen bonds, Medical nanotechnology, Molecular dynamics, Molecular physics, Self assembly, Thickness measurement, Peptides


Sánchez-Martín, M. J., Urbán, P., Pujol, M., Haro, I., Alsina, M. A., Busquets, M. A., (2011). Biophysical investigations of GBV-C E1 peptides as potential inhibitors of HIV-1 fusion peptide ChemPhysChem , 12, (15), 2816-2822

Five peptide sequences corresponding to the E1 protein of GBV-C [NCCAPEDIGFCLEGGCLV (P7), APEDIGFCLEGGCLVALG (P8), FCLEGGCLVALGCTICTD (P10), QAGLAVRPGKSAAQLVGE (P18), and AQLVGELGSLYGPLSVSA (P22)] were synthesized because they were capable of interfering with the HIV-1 fusion peptide (HIV-1 FP)-vesicle interaction. In this work the interaction of these peptides with the HIV-1 FP, as well as with membrane models, was analyzed to corroborate their inhibition ability and to understand if the interaction with the fusion peptide takes place in solution or at the membrane level. Several studies were carried out on aggregation and membrane fusion, surface Plasmon resonance, and conformational analysis by circular dichroism. Moreover, in vitro toxicity assays, including cytotoxicity studies in 3T3 fibroblasts and hemolysis assays in human red blood cells, were performed to evaluate if these peptides could be potentially used in anti-HIV-1 therapy. Results show that P10 is not capable of inhibiting membrane fusion caused by HIV-1 and it aggregates liposomes and fuses membranes, thus we decided to discard it for futures studies. P18 and P22 do not inhibit membrane fusion, but they inhibit the ability of HIV-1 FP to form pores in bilayers, thus we have not discarded them yet. P7 and P8 were selected as the best candidates for future studies because they are capable of inhibiting membrane fusion and the interaction of HIV-1 FP with bilayers. Therefore, these peptides could be potentially used in future anti-HIV-1 research. Part of the gang: Liposomes are deposited on a surface plasmon resonance chip (see AFM image of the chip) to observe the interaction of peptides corresponding to the E1 envelop protein of the hepatitis G virus with membranes to show how they reduce the interaction of the HIV-1 fusion peptide.

JTD Keywords: HIV-1 fusion protein, Liposomes, Membranes, Peptides, Viruses


Valente, T., Gella, A., Fernàndez-Busquets, X., Unzeta, M., Durany, N., (2010). Immunohistochemical analysis of human brain suggests pathological synergism of Alzheimer's disease and diabetes mellitus Neurobiology of Disease , 37, (1), 67-76

It has been extensively reported that diabetes mellitus (DM) patients have a higher risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). but a mechanistic connection between both pathologies has not been provided so far Carbohydrate-derived advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) have been implicated in the chronic complications of DM and have been reported to play an important role in the pathogenesis of AD. The earliest histopathological manifestation of AD is the apparition of extracellular aggregates of the amyloid beta peptide (A beta). To investigate possible correlations between AGEs and A beta aggregates with both pathologies. we have performed an immuhistochemical study in human post-mortem samples of AD, AD with diabetes (ADD). diabetic and nondemented controls ADD brains showed increased number of A beta dense plaques and receptor for AGEs (RACE)-positive and Tau-positive cells, higher AGEs levels and major microglial activation, compared to AD brain. Our results indicate that ADD patients present a significant increase of cell damage through a RAGE-dependent mechanism, suggesting that AGEs may promote the generation of an oxidative stress vicious cycle, which can explain the severe progression of patients with both pathologies.

JTD Keywords: Abeta, Alzheimer's disease, Rage, Ages, Diabetes, Immunohistochemistry, Advanced glycation endproducts, Beta-amyloid peptide, End-products, Oxidative stress, Advanced glycosylation, Synaptic dysfunction, Cross-linking


Fernàndez-Busquets, X., Ponce, J., Bravo, R., Arimon, M., Martianez, T., Gella, A., Cladera, J., Durany, N., (2010). Modulation of amyloid beta peptide(1-42) cytotoxicity and aggregation in vitro by glucose and chondroitin sulfate Current Alzheimer Research , 7, (5), 428-438

One mechanism leading to neurodegeneration during Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is amyloid beta peptide (A beta)-induced neurotoxicity. Among the factors proposed to potentiate A beta toxicity is its covalent modification through carbohydrate-derived advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs). Other experimental evidence, though, indicates that certain polymeric carbohydrates like the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains found in proteoglycan molecules attenuate the neurotoxic effect of A beta in primary neuronal cultures. Pretreatment of the 42-residue A beta fragment (A beta(1-42)) with the ubiquitous brain carbohydrates, glucose, fructose, and the GAG chondroitin sulfate B (CSB) inhibits A beta beta(1-42)-induced apoptosis and reduces the peptide neurotoxicity on neuroblastoma cells, a cytoprotective effect that is partially reverted by AGE inhibitors such as pyridoxamine and L-carnosine. Thioflavin T fluorescence measurements indicate that at concentrations close to physiological, only CSB promotes the formation of A beta amyloid fibril structure. Atomic force microscopy imaging and Western blot analysis suggest that glucose favours the formation of globular oligomeric structures derived from aggregated species. Our data suggest that at short times carbohydrates reduce A beta(1-42) toxicity through different mechanisms both dependent and independent of AGE formation.

JTD Keywords: Alzheimer's disease, Advanced glycation endproducts, Amyloid fibrils, Amyloid beta peptide, Apoptosis, Carbohydrates, Glycosaminoglycans


Sabaté, R., Espargaró, A., de Groot, N. S., Valle-Delgado, J. J., Fernàndez-Busquets, X., Ventura, S., (2010). The role of protein sequence and amino acid composition in amyloid formation: Scrambling and backward reading of IAPP amyloid fibrils Journal of Molecular Biology , 404, (2), 337-352

The specific functional structure of natural proteins is determined by the way in which amino acids are sequentially connected in the polypeptide. The tight sequence/structure relationship governing protein folding does not seem to apply to amyloid fibril formation because many proteins without any sequence relationship have been shown to assemble into very similar β-sheet-enriched structures. Here, we have characterized the aggregation kinetics, seeding ability, morphology, conformation, stability, and toxicity of amyloid fibrils formed by a 20-residue domain of the islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP), as well as of a backward and scrambled version of this peptide. The three IAPP peptides readily aggregate into ordered, β-sheet-enriched, amyloid-like fibrils. However, the mechanism of formation and the structural and functional properties of aggregates formed from these three peptides are different in such a way that they do not cross-seed each other despite sharing a common amino acid composition. The results confirm that, as for globular proteins, highly specific polypeptide sequential traits govern the assembly pathway, final fine structure, and cytotoxic properties of amyloid conformations.

JTD Keywords: Amyloid formation, Islet amyloid polypeptide, Protein aggregation, Protein sequence, Retro proteins


Guix, F. X., Ill-Raga, G., Bravo, R., Nakaya, T., de Fabritiis, G., Coma, M., Miscione, G. P., Villa-Freixa, J., Suzuki, T., Fernàndez-Busquets, X., Valverde, M. A., de Strooper, B., Munoz, F. J., (2009). Amyloid-dependent triosephosphate isomerase nitrotyrosination induces glycation and tau fibrillation Brain , 132, (5), 1335-1345

Alzheimer's disease neuropathology is characterized by neuronal death, amyloid beta-peptide deposits and neurofibrillary tangles composed of paired helical filaments of tau protein. Although crucial for our understanding of the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, the molecular mechanisms linking amyloid beta-peptide and paired helical filaments remain unknown. Here, we show that amyloid beta-peptide-induced nitro-oxidative damage promotes the nitrotyrosination of the glycolytic enzyme triosephosphate isomerase in human neuroblastoma cells. Consequently, nitro-triosephosphate isomerase was found to be present in brain slides from double transgenic mice overexpressing human amyloid precursor protein and presenilin 1, and in Alzheimer's disease patients. Higher levels of nitro-triosephosphate isomerase (P < 0.05) were detected, by Western blot, in immunoprecipitates from hippocampus (9 individuals) and frontal cortex (13 individuals) of Alzheimer's disease patients, compared with healthy subjects (4 and 9 individuals, respectively). Triosephosphate isomerase nitrotyrosination decreases the glycolytic flow. Moreover, during its isomerase activity, it triggers the production of the highly neurotoxic methylglyoxal (n = 4; P < 0.05). The bioinformatics simulation of the nitration of tyrosines 164 and 208, close to the catalytic centre, fits with a reduced isomerase activity. Human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells overexpressing double mutant triosephosphate isomerase (Tyr164 and 208 by Phe164 and 208) showed high methylglyoxal production. This finding correlates with the widespread glycation immunostaining in Alzheimer's disease cortex and hippocampus from double transgenic mice overexpressing amyloid precursor protein and presenilin 1. Furthermore, nitro-triosephosphate isomerase formed large beta-sheet aggregates in vitro and in vivo, as demonstrated by turbidometric analysis and electron microscopy. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy studies have demonstrated that nitro-triosephosphate isomerase binds tau monomers and induces tau aggregation to form paired helical filaments, the characteristic intracellular hallmark of Alzheimer's disease brains. Our results link oxidative stress, the main etiopathogenic mechanism in sporadic Alzheimer's disease, via the production of peroxynitrite and nitrotyrosination of triosephosphate isomerase, to amyloid beta-peptide-induced toxicity and tau pathology.

JTD Keywords: Alzheimer's disease, Amyloid β-peptide, Tau protein, Triosephosphate isomerase, Peroxynitrite


Hosta, L., Pla, M., Arbiol, J., Lopez-Iglesias, C., Samitier, J., Cruz, L. J., Kogan, M. J., Albericio, F., (2009). Conjugation of Kahalalide F with gold nanoparticles to enhance in vitro antitumoral activity Bioconjugate Chemistry , 20, (1), 138-146

Two Cys-containing analogues of the anticancer drug Kahalalide F are synthesized and conjugated to 20 and 40 nm gold nanoparticles (GNPs). The resulting complexes are characterized by different analytical techniques to confirm the attachment of peptide to the GNPs. The self-assembly capacity of a peptide dramatically influences the final ratio number of molecules per nanoparticle, saturating the nanoparticle surface and prompting multilayered capping on the surface. In such way, the nanoparticle could act as a concentrator for the delivery of drugs, thereby increasing bioactivity. The GNP sizes and the conjugation have influence on the biological activities. Kahalalide F analogues conjugated with GNPs are located subcellularly at lysosome-like bodies, which may be related to the action mechanism of Kahalalide F. The results suggest that the selective delivery and activity of Kahalalide F analogues can be improved by conjugating the peptides to GNPs.

JTD Keywords: Electrical detection, Cellular uptake, Drug-delivery, Cancer-cells, Peptide, Size, Surface, Absorption, Scattering, Therapy


Bravo, R., Arimon, M., Valle-Delgado, J. J., Garcia, R., Durany, N., Castel, S., Cruz, M., Ventura, S., Fernàndez-Busquets, X., (2008). Sulfated polysaccharides promote the assembly of amyloid beta(1-42) peptide into stable fibrils of reduced cytotoxicity Journal of Biological Chemistry , 283, (47), 32471-32483

The histopathological hallmarks of Alzheimer disease are the self-aggregation of the amyloid beta peptide (A beta) in extracellular amyloid fibrils and the formation of intraneuronal Tau filaments, but a convincing mechanism connecting both processes has yet to be provided. Here we show that the endogenous polysaccharide chondroitin sulfate B (CSB) promotes the formation of fibrillar structures of the 42-residue fragment, A beta(1-42). Atomic force microscopy visualization, thioflavin T fluorescence, CD measurements, and cell viability assays indicate that CSB-induced fibrils are highly stable entities with abundant beta-sheet structure that have little toxicity for neuroblastoma cells. We propose a wedged cylinder model for A beta(1-42) fibrils that is consistent with the majority of available data, it is an energetically favorable assembly that minimizes the exposure of hydrophobic areas, and it explains why fibrils do not grow in thickness. Fluorescence measurements of the effect of different A beta(1-42) species on Ca2+ homeostasis show that weakly structured nodular fibrils, but not CSB-induced smooth fibrils, trigger a rise in cytosolic Ca2+ that depends on the presence of both extracellular and intracellular stocks. In vitro assays indicate that such transient, local Ca2+ increases can have a direct effect in promoting the formation of Tau filaments similar to those isolated from Alzheimer disease brains.

JTD Keywords: AFM, Alzheimers-disease, Chondroitin sulfate, Heparan-sulfate, Lipid-bilayers, Beta-peptide, In-vitro, Neurodegenerative diseases, Extracellular-matrix, Prion protein