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by Keyword: Temperature

Arnau M, Sans J, Gallego E, Perales JF, Turon P, Alemán C, (2024). Polarized hydroxyapatite, a ceramic nanocatalyst to convert automotive carbon emissions into ethanol Journal Of Environmental Chemical Engineering 12, 112255

This paper is aimed to develop ultrananoporous polarized hydroxyapatite (HAp) catalyst and evaluate its performance in transforming CO2 into useable ethanol considering three different scenarios: 1) a batch reaction using a mixture of CO2 and CH4 as feeding gas; 2) a batch reaction using as reactant exhaust gases captured from the fumes of diesel vehicles; and 3) a continuous flow reaction using pure CO2 as feeding gas. Ultrananoporous HAp scaffolds were prepared using a four-step process: 1) as prepared HAp powder was mixed with 60% wt. of a commercial hydrogel at low-temperature; 2) the resulting paste was shaped at low temperature to reduce the adhesion between the metallic tools and the mixture, enhancing the homogeneity of the sample; 3) the shaped paste was calcined in air by applying 1000 ºC during 2 h to eliminate the hydrogel; and 4) an external DC electric field of 3 kV/cm was imposed at 1000 ºC during 1 h to the calcined scaffold. The resulting polarized scaffolds both ultrananoporosity and catalytic activation. Thus, the mass: volume ratio of the ultrananoporous catalyst was much lower than that of conventional HAp catalyst (718 vs 5093 g/L. Furthermore, the ethanol yield was much higher (up to a factor of ×21.4) for the ultrananoporous catalyst than for the compact one, allowing us to conclude that ultrananoporous polarized HAp catalyst is a promising technology for transforming CO2 into valuable chemical products from highly polluted gases, especially those coming from road, sea and air transport. © 2024 Elsevier Ltd

JTD Keywords: A: ceramics, Air pollution, Automotives, Batch reactions, Calcination, Carbon, Carbon dioxide, Co2 fixation, Electric fields, Environmental process, Ethanol, Exhaust gases, Feeding gas, Fumes, Hydrogels, Hydroxyapatite, Lows-temperatures, Nano-catalyst, Nanocatalysts, Polarized catalyst, Scaffolds, Temperature, ]+ catalyst


Farré R, Rodríguez-Lázaro MA, Otero J, Gavara N, Sunyer R, Farré N, Gozal D, Almendros I, (2024). Low-cost, open-source device for simultaneously subjecting rodents to different circadian cycles of light, food, and temperature Frontiers In Physiology 15, 1356787

Exposure of experimental rodents to controlled cycles of light, food, and temperature is important when investigating alterations in circadian cycles that profoundly influence health and disease. However, applying such stimuli simultaneously is difficult in practice. We aimed to design, build, test, and open-source describe a simple device that subjects a conventional mouse cage to independent cycles of physiologically relevant environmental variables. The device is based on a box enclosing the rodent cage to modify the light, feeding, and temperature environments. The device provides temperature-controlled air conditioning (heating or cooling) by a Peltier module and includes programmable feeding and illumination. All functions are set by a user-friendly front panel for independent cycle programming. Bench testing with a model simulating the CO2 production of mice in the cage showed: a) suitable air renewal (by measuring actual ambient CO2), b) controlled realistic illumination at the mouse enclosure (measured by a photometer), c) stable temperature control, and d) correct cycling of light, feeding, and temperature. The cost of all the supplies (retail purchased by e-commerce) was <300 US$. Detailed technical information is open-source provided, allowing for any user to reliably reproduce or modify the device. This approach can considerably facilitate circadian research since using one of the described low-cost devices for any mouse group with a given light-food-temperature paradigm allows for all the experiments to be performed simultaneously, thereby requiring no changes in the light/temperature of a general-use laboratory. Copyright © 2024 Farré, Rodríguez-Lázaro, Otero, Gavara, Sunyer, Farré, Gozal and Almendros.

JTD Keywords: Animal experiment, Animal model, Animal research, Article, Circadian alteration, Circadian rhythm, Commercial phenomena, Controlled study, Cycling, Energy consumption, Experimental model, Feeding, Food, Food availability, Illumination, Intermittent fasting, Light, Light cycle, Light dark cycle, Mouse, Nonhuman, Open source technology, Open-source hardware, Performance, Photography, Research, Rodent, Temperature, Temperature cycle


Sans J, Arnau M, Bosque R, Turon P, Alemán C, (2024). Synthesis of urea from CO2 and N2 fixation under mild conditions using polarized hydroxyapatite as a catalyst† Sustainable Energy & Fuels

Polarized hydroxyapatite (p-HAp) has been used as a catalyst for the synthesis of urea coupling N2, CO2 and water under mild reaction conditions when compared to classical nitrogen fixation reactions, such as the Haber–Bosch process. The reaction of 3 bar of N2 and 3 bar of CO2 under UV illumination at 120 °C (for 48 h) results in a urea yield of 1.5 ± 0.1 mmol per gram of catalyst (gc) with a selectivity close to 80%, whereas the reaction is not successful without UV irradiation. However, the addition of small amounts of NO (314 ppm) produces 15.2 ± 0.6 and 4.6 ± 0.4 mmol gc−1 with and without UV illumination, respectively, with the selectivity in both cases being close to 100%. As nitrogen fixation without UV irradiation using p-HAp as a catalyst is a challenge, studies with NO have been conducted varying the reaction conditions (time, pressure and temperature). The results suggest a mechanism based on the production of NH4+ through the oxidation of N2 This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2024.

JTD Keywords: Carbon dioxide, Catalyst selectivity, Condition, Haber-bosch process, Hydroxyapatite, Irradiation, Metabolism, Mild reaction conditions, Nitrogen fixation, Pressure and temperature, Reaction conditions, Time pressures, Time-temperature, Urea, Uv illuminations, Without uv irradiations, ]+ catalyst


Garcia-de-Albeniz, N, Ginebra, MP, Jimenez-Piqué, E, Roa, JJ, Mas-Moruno, C, (2024). Influence of nanosecond laser surface patterning on dental 3Y-TZP: Effects on the topography, hydrothermal degradation and cell response Dental Materials 40, 139-150

Laser surface micropatterning of dental-grade zirconia (3Y-TZP) was explored with the objective of providing defined linear patterns capable of guiding bone-cell response.A nanosecond (ns-) laser was employed to fabricate microgrooves on the surface of 3Y-TZP discs, yielding three different groove periodicities (i.e., 30, 50 and 100 µm). The resulting topography and surface damage were characterized by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy techniques were employed to assess the hydrothermal degradation resistance of the modified topographies. Preliminary biological studies were conducted to evaluate adhesion (6 h) of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) to the patterns in terms of cell number and morphology. Finally, Staphylococcus aureus adhesion (4 h) to the microgrooves was investigated.The surface analysis showed grooves of approximately 1.8 µm height that exhibited surface damage in the form of pile-up at the edge of the microgrooves, microcracks and cavities. Accelerated aging tests revealed a slight decrease of the hydrothermal degradation resistance after laser patterning, and the Raman mapping showed the presence of monoclinic phase heterogeneously distributed along the patterned surfaces. An increase of the hMSC area was identified on all the microgrooved surfaces, although only the 50 µm periodicity, which is closer to the cell size, significantly favored cell elongation and alignment along the grooves. A decrease in Staphylococcus aureus adhesion was observed on the investigated micropatterns.The study suggests that linear microgrooves of 50 µm periodicity may help in promoting hMSC adhesion and alignment, while reducing bacterial cell attachment.Copyright © 2023 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

JTD Keywords: abutment material, alumina toughened zirconia, antibacterial, bacterial adhesion, biofilm growth, cell adhesion, dental implants, hydrothermal degradation, implant surfaces, in-vitro, laser patterning, osseointegration, osteogenic differentiation, part 1, surface topography, y-tzp ceramics, Antibacterial, Antibacterials, Bacteria, Bone, Cell adhesion, Cell culture, Cells adhesion, Ceramics, Chemistry, Degradation resistance, Dental implants, Dental material, Dental materials, Dental prostheses, Human, Human mesenchymal stem cells, Humans, Hydrothermal degradation, Laser patterning, Laser surface, Lasers, Low-temperature degradation, Materials testing, Microscopy, electron, scanning, Nanosecond lasers, Osseointegration, Piles, Scanning electron microscopy, Staphylococcus aureus, Stem cells, Surface analysis, Surface damages, Surface properties, Surface property, Surface topography, Topography, Yttrium, Zirconia, Zirconium


Barbosa, F, Garrudo, FFF, Alberte, PS, Resina, L, Carvalho, MS, Jain, A, Marques, AC, Estrany, F, Rawson, FJ, Aléman, C, Ferreira, FC, Silva, JC, (2023). Hydroxyapatite-filled osteoinductive and piezoelectric nanofibers for bone tissue engineering Science And Technology Of Advanced Materials 24, 2242242

Osteoporotic-related fractures are among the leading causes of chronic disease morbidity in Europe and in the US. While a significant percentage of fractures can be repaired naturally, in delayed-union and non-union fractures surgical intervention is necessary for proper bone regeneration. Given the current lack of optimized clinical techniques to adequately address this issue, bone tissue engineering (BTE) strategies focusing on the development of scaffolds for temporarily replacing damaged bone and supporting its regeneration process have been gaining interest. The piezoelectric properties of bone, which have an important role in tissue homeostasis and regeneration, have been frequently neglected in the design of BTE scaffolds. Therefore, in this study, we developed novel hydroxyapatite (HAp)-filled osteoinductive and piezoelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-tetrafluoroethylene) (PVDF-TrFE) nanofibers via electrospinning capable of replicating the tissue's fibrous extracellular matrix (ECM) composition and native piezoelectric properties. The developed PVDF-TrFE/HAp nanofibers had biomimetic collagen fibril-like diameters, as well as enhanced piezoelectric and surface properties, which translated into a better capacity to assist the mineralization process and cell proliferation. The biological cues provided by the HAp nanoparticles enhanced the osteogenic differentiation of seeded human mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) as observed by the increased ALP activity, cell-secreted calcium deposition and osteogenic gene expression levels observed for the HAp-containing fibers. Overall, our findings describe the potential of combining PVDF-TrFE and HAp for developing electroactive and osteoinductive nanofibers capable of supporting bone tissue regeneration.© 2023 The Author(s). Published by National Institute for Materials Science in partnership with Taylor & Francis Group.

JTD Keywords: composites, electrospinning, hydroxyapatite, piezoelectricity, promote, pvdf, pvdf-trfe, removal, scaffolds, temperature, Bone tissue engineering, Electrospinning, Electrospun polycaprolactone, Hydroxyapatite, Piezoelectricity, Pvdf-trfe


Valenti, S, Arioli, M, Jamett, A, Tamarit, JL, Puiggalí, J, Macovez, R, (2023). Amorphous solid dispersions of curcumin in a poly(ester amide): Antiplasticizing effect on the glass transition and macromolecular relaxation dynamics, and controlled release International Journal Of Pharmaceutics 644, 123333

In order to exploit the pharmacological potential of natural bioactive molecules with low water solubility, such as curcumin, it is necessary to develop formulations, such as amorphous polymer dispersions, which allow a constant release rate and at the same time avoid possible toxicity effects of the crystalline form of the molecule under scrutiny. In this study, polymer dispersions of curcumin were obtained in PADAS, a biodegradable semicrystalline copolymer based on 1,12-dodecanediol, sebacic acid and alanine. The dispersions were fully characterized by means of differential scanning calorimetry and broadband dielectric spectroscopy, and the drug release profile was measured in a simulated body fluid. Amorphous homogeneous binary dispersions were obtained for curcumin mass fraction between 30 and 50%. Curcumin has significantly higher glass transition temperature Tg (≈ 347 K) than the polymer matrix (≈274-277 K depending on the molecular weight), and dispersions displayed Tg's intermediate between those of the pure amorphous components, implying that curcumin acts as an effective antiplasticizer for PADAS. Dielectric spectroscopy was employed to assess the relaxation dynamics of the binary dispersion with 30 wt% curcumin, as well as that of each (amorphous) component separately. The binary dispersion was characterized by a single structural relaxation, a single Johari-Goldstein process, and two local intramolecular processes, one for each component. Interestingly, the latter processes scaled with the Tg of the sample, indicating that they are viscosity-sensitive. In addition, both the pristine polymer and the dispersion exhibited an interfacial Maxwell-Wagner relaxation, likely due to spatial heterogeneities associated with phase disproportionation in this polymer. The release of curcumin from the dispersion in a simulated body fluid followed a Fickian diffusion profile, and 51% of the initial curcumin content was released in 48 h.Copyright © 2023. Published by Elsevier B.V.

JTD Keywords: antioxidant, bioavailability, dielectric spectroscopy, domain havriliak-negami, glass transition temperature, kinetic stability, molecular mobility, nm pores, phase-behavior, physical stability, release kinetics, temperature, thermodynamic quantities, time, Amorphous formulations, Dielectric spectroscopy, Glass transition temperature, Kinetic stability, Kohlrausch-williams-watts, Molecular mobility, Release kinetics


Alcàcer-Almansa, J, Arévalo-Jaimes, BV, Blanco-Cabra, N, Torrents, E, (2023). Methods for studying biofilms: Microfluidics and translation in the clinical context Methods In Microbiology 53, 195-233

Garcia-Torres, J, Colombi, S, Mahamed, I, Sylla, D, Arnau, M, Sans, J, Ginebra, MP, Aleman, C, (2023). Nanocomposite Hydrogels with Temperature Response for Capacitive Energy Storage Acs Applied Energy Materials 6, 4487-4495

Claudia, GM, Ivan, G, Laia, OM, Emilio, JP, Maria-Pau, G, Maurizio, V, Luis, CJ, Marta, P, (2023). Influence of ECAP process on mechanical, corrosion and bacterial properties of Zn-2Ag alloy for wound closure devices Materials & Design 228, 111817

Actual polymeric wound closure devices are not optimal for load-bearing applications due to the low mechanical properties and the risk of inflammation and bacterial infection mainly produced by multifil-ament and braided configurations. Biodegradable metallic Zn alloys are promising materials candidates; however, mechanical performance, corrosion behaviour, and biological response should be controlled in order to inhibit the risk of inflammation and bacterial infection. To this end, a Zn-2Ag (2 wt% Ag) alloy was processed by ECAP to evaluate the concurrent combined effect of grain refinement and Ag alloying on biodegradation and antibacterial activity. Two ECAP cycles were successfully applied to a Zn-2Ag alloy obtaining a homogeneous ultra-fine-grained structure in which nanoindentation maps suggested isotro-pic mechanical properties. Lower UTS and YS with higher elongation was reported after ECAP with similar corrosion rates as before processing. ECAP processed samples showed a homogeneous Ag+ release below the minimum inhibitory concentration for S. Aureus and no antibacterial effect was observed by diffusion. As expected, the presence of Ag in Zn-Ag alloys reduced bacterial attachment. Nevertheless, ECAP processed Zn-2Ag provided an excellent antibacterial activity after 3 h probably caused by the uniformly degraded and thus, non- stable, surface observed after bacterial adhesion.(c) 2023 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

JTD Keywords: Behavior, Binary alloys, Biodegradable zinc-alloys, Biomaterials, Equal channel angular pressing, Grain-refinement, In-vitro degradation, Mg, Microstructure, Nanoindentation, Progress, Staphylococcus-aureus, Temperature superplasticity, Ultrafine-grained materials, Zinc alloys, Zn alloys


Lanzalaco, S, Mingot, J, Torras, J, Alemán, C, Armelin, E, (2023). Recent Advances in Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) Hydrogels and Derivatives as Promising Materials for Biomedical and Engineering Emerging Applications Advanced Engineering Materials 25,

Yazici, N, Opar, E, Kodal, M, Tanören, B, Sezen, M, Özkoc, G, (2022). A novel practical approach for monitoring the crosslink density of an ethylene propylene diene monomer compound: Complementary scanning acoustic microscopy and FIB-SEM-EDS analyses Polymers & Polymer Composites 30, 9673911221074192

Tuning of the crosslink density (CLD) in the rubber compounds is very crucial for optimizing the physical and mechanical properties of the ultimate rubber products. Conventionally, CLD can be measured via rheological methods such as moving die rheometer (MDR), via mechanical tests such as temperature scanning stress relaxation analysis (TSSR), or via direct swelling experiments using Flory–Rehner approach. In the current study, two novel techniques, focused ion beam - scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) processing, with simultaneous energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) mapping analysis and scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM) were combined and correlated to conventional methods on a model recipe of ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) compound having different sulphur contents. Depending on the applied technique, the increase in the crosslink density with sulphur content was found to be 1.7 fold for the Flory–Rehner approach and 1.2 fold for both TSSR and MDR. It is directly monitored from the FIB-SEM-EDS analysis that the sulphur distribution and agglomeration behavior increased in line with ZnO content, which is an indirect indication of the rise in crosslink density. The impedance maps of the crosslinked samples obtained through SAM analysis revealed that the impedance of the samples increased with the increasing sulphur content, which can be attributed to higher level of crosslink density. A quantified correlation was obtained between SAM images and the crosslink density of the samples. It was shown that SAM is a promising tool for practical and non-destructive analysis for determining the formation of crosslink density of the rubbers. © The Author(s) 2022.

JTD Keywords: blends, compressibility, crosslink density, cure characteristics, ethylene propylene diene monomer, focused ion beam, mechanical-properties, morphology, natural-rubber, particles, scanning acoustic microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, sulfur, thermal-stability, vulcanization, Composite soft materials, Cross-link densities, Crosslink density, Crosslinking, Density (specific gravity), Ethylene, Ethylene propylene diene monomer, Flory-rehner, Focused ion beam - scanning electron microscopy, Focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopies, Ii-vi semiconductors, Monomers, Moving die rheometers, Physical and mechanical properties, Propylene, Relaxation analysis, Rubber, Scanning acoustic microscopy, Scanning electron microscopy, Stress relaxation, Sulfur contents, Temperature scanning stress relaxations, Zinc oxide


Sans, J, Arnau, M, Sanz, V, Turon, P, Alemán, C, (2022). Hydroxyapatite-based biphasic catalysts with plasticity properties and its potential in carbon dioxide fixation Chemical Engineering Journal 433, 133512

The design of catalysts with controlled selectivity at will, also known as catalytic plasticity, is a very attractive approach for the recycling of carbon dioxide (CO2). In this work, we study how catalytically active hydroxyapatite (HAp) and brushite (Bru) interact synergistically, allowing the production of formic acid or acetic acid depending on the HAp/Bru ratio in the catalyst. Raman, wide angle X-ray scattering, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies, combined with an exhaustive revision of the crystalline structure of the catalyst at the atomic level, allowed to discern how the Bru phase can be generated and stabilized at high temperatures. Results clearly indicate that the presence of OH– groups to maintain the crystalline structural integrity in conjunction with Ca2+ ions less bonded to the lattice fixate carbon into C1, C2 and C3 molecules from CO2 and allow the evolution from formic to acetic acid and acetone. In this way, the plasticity of the HAp-Bru system is demonstrated, representing a promising green alternative to the conventional metal-based electrocatalysts used for CO2 fixation. Thus, the fact that no electric voltage is necessary for the CO2 reduction has a very favorable impact in the final energetic net balance of the carbon fixation reaction. © 2021

JTD Keywords:

ethanol production & nbsp, brushite, co2 reduction, conversion, electrocatalytic reduction, electrode, formate, heterogeneous catalysis & nbsp, hydrogen evolution, insights, monetite, polarized hydroxyapatite,

, Acetic acid, Acetone, Biphasic catalyst, Brushite, Calcium phosphate, Carbon dioxide, Carbon dioxide fixation, Catalysis, Catalyst selectivity, Co 2 reduction, Co2 reduction, Electrocatalysts, Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, Electrochemical reduction, Electrochemical-impedance spectroscopies, Ethanol production, Formic acid, Heterogeneous catalysis, Hydroxyapatite, Ph, Polarized hydroxyapatite, Property, Reduction, Scanning electron microscopy, Temperature programmed desorption, Wide angle x-ray scattering, X ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X ray scattering, ]+ catalyst


Solorzano, A, Eichmann, J, Fernandez, L, Ziems, B, Jimenez-Soto, JM, Marco, S, Fonollosa, J, (2022). Early fire detection based on gas sensor arrays: Multivariate calibration and validation Sensors And Actuators B-Chemical 352, 130961

Smoldering fires are characterized by the production of early gas emissions that can include high levels of CO and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) due to pyrolysis or thermal degradation. Nowadays, standalone CO sensors, smoke detectors, or a combination of these, are standard components for fire alarm systems. While gas sensor arrays together with pattern recognition techniques are a valuable alternative for early fire detection, in practice they have certain drawbacks-they can detect early gas emissions, but can show low immunity to nuisances, and sensor time drift can render calibration models obsolete. In this work, we explore the performance of a gas sensor array for detecting smoldering and plastic fires while ensuring the rejection of a set of nuisances. We conducted variety of fire and nuisance experiments in a validated standard fire room (240 m(3)). Using PLS-DA and SVM, we evaluate the performance of different multivariate calibration models for this dataset. We show that calibration models remain predictive after several months, but perfect performance is not achieved. For example, 4 months after calibration, a PLS-DA model provides 100% specificity and 85% sensitivity since the system has difficulties in detecting plastic fires, whose signatures are close to nuisance scenarios. Nevertheless, our results show that systems based on gas sensor arrays are able to provide faster fire alarm response than conventional smoke-based fire alarms. We also propose the use of small-scale fire experiments to increase the number of calibration conditions at a reduced cost. Our results show that this is an effective way to increase the performance of the model, even when evaluated on a standard fire room. Finally, the acquired datasets are made publicly available to the community (doi: 10.5281/zenodo.5643074).

JTD Keywords: Calibration, Chemical sensors, Co2, Early fire, Early fire detection, En-54, Fire alarm, Fire detection, Fire room, Fires, Gas detectors, Gas emissions, Gas sensors, Pattern recognition, Public dataset, Sensor arrays, Sensors array, Signatures, Smoke, Smoke detector, Smoke detectors, Standard fire, Standard fire room, Support vector machines, Temperature, Toxicity, Volatile organic compounds


Sans, J, Arnau, M, Sanz, V, Turon, P, Alemán, C, (2022). Polarized Hydroxyapatite: New Insights and Future Perspectives Through Systematic Electrical Characterization at the Interface Advanced Materials Interfaces 9, 2101631

García-Mintegui, C, Córdoba, LC, Buxadera-Palomero, J, Marquina, A, Jiménez-Piqué, E, Ginebra, MP, Cortina, JL, Pegueroles, M, (2021). Zn-Mg and Zn-Cu alloys for stenting applications: From nanoscale mechanical characterization to in vitro degradation and biocompatibility Bioactive Materials 6, 4430-4446

In the recent decades, zinc (Zn) and its alloys have been drawing attention as promising candidates for bioresorbable cardiovascular stents due to its degradation rate more suitable than magnesium (Mg) and iron (Fe) alloys. However, its mechanical properties need to be improved in order to meet the criteria for vascular stents. This work investigates the mechanical properties, biodegradability and biocompatibility of Zn-Mg and Zn-Cu alloys in order to determine a proper alloy composition for optimal stent performance. Nanoindentation measurements are performed to characterize the mechanical properties at the nanoscale as a function of the Zn microstructure variations induced by alloying. The biodegradation mechanisms are discussed and correlated to microstructure, mechanical performance and bacterial/cell response. Addition of Mg or Cu alloying elements refined the microstructure of Zn and enhanced yield strength (YS) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) proportional to the volume fraction of secondary phases. Zn-1Mg showed the higher YS and UTS and better performance in terms of degradation stability in Hanks’ solution. Zn-Cu alloys presented an antibacterial effect for S. aureus controlled by diffusion mechanisms and by contact. Biocompatibility was dependent on the degradation rate and the nature of the corrosion products.

JTD Keywords: behavior, biocompatibility, biodegradable metals, bioresorbable metals, bioresorbable scaffold, copper, corrosion properties, elastic-modulus, galvanic corrosion, microstructure, nanoindentation, redox homeostasis, zinc, Biocompatibility, Bioresorbable metals, Galvanic corrosion, Nanoindentation, Room-temperature superplasticity, Zinc alloys


Farre, R, Rodriguez-Lazaro, MA, Dinh-Xuan, AT, Pons-Odena, M, Navajas, D, Gozal, D, (2021). A low-cost, easy-to-assemble device to prevent infant hyperthermia under conditions of high thermal stress International Journal Of Environmental Research And Public Health 18, 13382

High ambient temperature and humidity greatly increase the risk of hyperthermia and mortality, particularly in infants, who are especially prone to dehydration. World areas at high risk of heat stress include many of the low-and middle-income countries (LMICs) where most of their inhabitants have no access to air conditioning. This study aimed to design, evaluate, and test a novel low-cost and easy-to-assemble device aimed at preventing the risk of infant hyperthermia in LMICs. The device is based on optimizing negative heat transfer from a small amount of ice and transferring it directly to the infant by airflow of refrigerated air. As a proof of concept, a device was assembled mainly using recycled materials, and its performance was assessed under laboratory-controlled conditions in a climatic chamber mimicking realistic stress conditions of high temperature and humidity. The device, which can be assembled by any layperson using easily available materials, provided sufficient refrigerating capacity for several hours from just 1–2 kg of ice obtained from a domestic freezer. Thus, application of this novel device may serve to attenuate the adverse effects of heat stress in infants, particularly in the context of the evolving climatic change trends. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

JTD Keywords: air conditioning, ambient-temperature, death, heat, heat index, heat shock, heatwave, high ambient temperature, hyperthermia, low-cost refrigeration, low-middle income countries, mortality, negative heat transfer, Air conditioning, Algorithm, Article, Climate change, Cost benefit analysis, Environmental temperature, Heat index, Heat shock, Heat stress, Heat transfer, Heating, Heatwave, High ambient temperature, High temperature, Humidity, Hyperthermia, Low income country, Low-cost refrigeration, Low-middle income countries, Middle income country, Middle-income countries, Negative heat transfer, Prevention study, Refrigeration, Temperature stress, Thawing


Maiti, B, Nandi, M, Bonardd, S, Franco, L, Puiggali, J, Enshaei, H, Aleman, C, Diaz, DD, (2021). Efficient One-Pot Preparation of Thermoresponsive Polyurethanes with Lower Critical Solution Temperatures Chempluschem 86, 1570-1576

This work reports a simple and scalable strategy to prepare a series of thermoresponsive polyurethanes synthesized via copolymerization of dicyclohexyl diisocyanate with glycerol ethoxylate in a single one-pot system. These polyurethanes exhibit lower critical solution temperatures (LCST) at 57 degrees C. The LCST of synthesized polyurethane was determined from Dynamic Scanning Calorimetry and UV-vis measurements. Both the LCST and T-g of synthesized polyurethane was tuned by varying the ratio between hard segment (dicyclohexyl diisocyanate) and soft segment (glycerol ethoxylate). Thus, T-g values could be tuned from -54.6 degrees C to -19.9 degrees C for samples with different flexibility. The swelling and deswelling studies were done at room temperature and above the LCST respectively. The results showed that the swelling ratio increases with the increase of soft segment (glycerol ethoxylate) in synthesized polyurethanes. Furthermore, the mechanical properties of the membrane were studied by universal tensile testing measurements. Specifically, stress at break values varied from 0.35 +/- 0.07 MPa to 0.91 +/- 0.15 MPa for the tested membranes, whereas elongation at break data ranged from 101.9 +/- 20.9 % to 192.4 +/- 24.4 %, and Young's modulus varied from 0.35 +/- 0.03 MPa to 1.85 +/- 0.19 MPa. Tensile strength of the films increased with the increase of the hard segment and elongation at break decreased.

JTD Keywords: copolymerization, critical solution temperatures, polyurethanes, tensile strength, Biodegradable polyurethanes, Copolymerization, Critical solution temperatures, Glycol), Polymers, Polyurethanes, Solvent-free, Tensile strength, Thermoresponsive materials


Minguela, J, Muller, DW, Mucklich, F, Llanes, L, Ginebra, MP, Roa, JJ, Mas-Moruno, C, (2021). Peptidic biofunctionalization of laser patterned dental zirconia: A biochemical-topographical approach Materials Science & Engineering C-Materials For Biological Applications 125, 112096

A dual approach employing peptidic biofunctionalization and laser micro-patterns on dental zirconia was explored, with the aim of providing a flexible tool to improve tissue integration of restorations. Direct laser interference patterning with a femtosecond Ti:Sapphire laser was employed, and two periodic grooved patterns were produced with a periodicity of 3 and 10 μm. A platform containing the cell-adhesive RGD and the osteogenic DWIVA peptides was used to functionalize the grooved surfaces. Topography and surface damage were characterized by confocal laser scanning (CLSM), scanning electron and scanning transmission electron microscopy techniques. The surface patterns exhibited a high homogeneity and subsurface damage was found in the form of nano-cracks and nano-pores, at the bottom of the valleys. Accelerated tests in water steam were carried out to assess hydrothermal degradation resistance, which slightly decreased after the laser treatment. Interestingly, the detrimental effects of the laser modification were reverted by a post-laser thermal treatment. The attachment of the molecule was verified trough fluorescence CLSM and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Finally, the biological properties of the surfaces were studied in human mesenchymal stem cells. Cell adhesion, morphology, migration and differentiation were investigated. Cells on grooved surfaces displayed an elongated morphology and aligned along the patterns. On these surfaces, migration was greatly enhanced along the grooves, but also highly restricted in the perpendicular direction as compared to flat specimens. After biofunctionalization, cell number and cell area increased and well-developed cell cytoskeletons were observed. However, no effects on cell migration were found for the peptidic platform. Although some osteogenic potential was found in specimens grooved with a periodicity of 10 μm, the largest effects were observed from the biomolecule, which favored upregulation of several genes related to osteoblastic differentiation in all the surfaces.

JTD Keywords: alumina toughened zirconia, cell alignment, grain-size, implants, interference, laser patterning, osteogenic differentiation, osteointegration, peptides, surface functionalization, surface-topography, tissue, titanium surface, Laser patterning, Low-temperature degradation, Osteointegration, Peptides, Surface functionalization, Zirconia


Covington, JA, Marco, S, Persaud, KC, Schiffman, SS, Nagle, HT, (2021). Artificial Olfaction in the 21st Century Ieee Sensors Journal 21, 12969-12990

The human olfactory system remains one of the most challenging biological systems to replicate. Humans use it without thinking, where it can equally offer protection from harm and bring enjoyment in equal measure. It is the system’s ability to detect and analyze complex odors, without the need for specialized infra-structure, that is the envy of many scientists. The field of artificial olfaction has recruited and stimulated interdisciplinary research and commercial development for several applications that include malodor measurement, medical diagnostics, food and beverage quality, environment and security. Over the last century, innovative engineers and scientists have been focused on solving a range of problems associated with measurement and control of odor. The IEEE Sensors Journal has published Special Issues on olfaction in 2002 and 2012. Here we continue that coverage. In this article, we summarize early work in the 20th Century that served as the foundation upon which we have been building our odor-monitoring instrumental and measurement systems. We then examine the current state of the art that has been achieved over the last two decades as we have transitioned into the 21st Century. Much has been accomplished, but great progress is needed in sensor technology, system design, product manufacture and performance standards. In the final section, we predict levels of performance and ubiquitous applications that will be realized during in the mid to late 21st Century.

JTD Keywords: air-quality, breath analysis, calibration transfer, chemical sensor arrays, chemosensor arrays, drift compensation, electronic nose, gas sensors, headspace sampling, machine learning, machine olfaction, odor detection, plume structure, voc analysis, Artificial olfaction, Electrodes, Electronic nose, Electronic nose technology, Headspace sampling, Instruments, Machine learning, Machine olfaction, Monitoring, Odor detection, Olfactory, Sensor phenomena and characterization, Sensors, Temperature sensors, Voc analysis


Palacio, F., Fonollosa, J., Burgués, J., Gomez, J. M., Marco, S., (2020). Pulsed-temperature metal oxide gas sensors for microwatt power consumption IEEE Access 8, 70938-70946

Metal Oxide (MOX) gas sensors rely on chemical reactions that occur efficiently at high temperatures, resulting in too-demanding power requirements for certain applications. Operating the sensor under a Pulsed-Temperature Operation (PTO), by which the sensor heater is switched ON and OFF periodically, is a common practice to reduce the power consumption. However, the sensor performance is degraded as the OFF periods become larger. Other research works studied, generally, PTO schemes applying waveforms to the heater with time periods of seconds and duty cycles above 20%. Here, instead, we explore the behaviour of PTO sensors working under aggressive schemes, reaching power savings of 99% and beyond with respect to continuous heater stimulation. Using sensor sensitivity and the limit of detection, we evaluated four Ultra Low Power (ULP) sensors under different PTO schemes exposed to ammonia, ethylene, and acetaldehyde. Results show that it is possible to operate the sensors with total power consumption in the range of microwatts. Despite the aggressive power reduction, sensor sensitivity suffers only a moderate decline and the limit of detection may degrade up to a factor five. This is, however, gas-dependent and should be explored on a case-by-case basis since, for example, the same degradation has not been observed for ammonia. Finally, the run-in time, i.e., the time required to get a stable response immediately after switching on the sensor, increases when reducing the power consumption, from 10 minutes to values in the range of 10–20 hours for power consumptions smaller than 200 microwatts.

JTD Keywords: Robot sensing systems, Temperature sensors, Heating systems, Gas detectors, Power demand, Sensitivity, Electronic nose, gas sensors, low-power operation, machine olfaction, pulsed-temperature operation, temperature modulation


Wang, S., Hu, Y., Burgués, J., Marco, S., Liu, S.-L., (2020). Prediction of gas concentration using gated recurrent neural networks 2nd IEEE International Conference on Artificial Intelligence Circuits and Systems (AICAS) , IEEE (Genova, Italy) , 178-182

Low-cost gas sensors allow for large-scale spatial monitoring of air quality in the environment. However they require calibration before deployment. Methods such as multivariate regression techniques have been applied towards sensor calibration. In this work, we propose instead, the use of deep learning methods, particularly, recurrent neural networks for predicting the gas concentrations based on the outputs of these sensors. This paper presents a first study of using Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU) neural network models for gas concentration prediction. The GRU networks achieve on average, a 44.69% and a 25.17% RMSE improvement in concentration prediction on a gas dataset when compared with Support Vector Regression (SVR) and Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) models respectively. With the current advances in deep network hardware accelerators, these networks can be combined with the sensors for a compact embedded system suitable for edge applications.

JTD Keywords: Robot sensing systems, Predictive models, Logic gates, Gas detectors, Training, Temperature measurement, Support vector machines


Pollastri, S., Jorba, I., Hawkins, T. J., Llusià , J., Michelozzi, M., Navajas, D., Peñuelas, J., Hussey, P. J., Knight, M. R., Loreto, F., (2019). Leaves of isoprene-emitting tobacco plants maintain PSII stability at high temperatures New Phytologist 223, (3), 1307-1318

At high temperatures, isoprene-emitting plants display a higher photosynthetic rate and a lower nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) compared with nonemitting plants. The mechanism of this phenomenon, which may be very important under current climate warming, is still elusive. NPQ was dissected into its components, and chlorophyll fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) was used to analyse the dynamics of excited chlorophyll relaxation in isoprene-emitting and nonemitting plants. Thylakoid membrane stiffness was also measured using atomic force microscope (AFM) to identify a possible mode of action of isoprene in improving photochemical efficiency and photosynthetic stability. We show that, when compared with nonemitters, isoprene-emitting tobacco plants exposed at high temperatures display a reduced increase of the NPQ energy-dependent component (qE) and stable (1) chlorophyll fluorescence lifetime; (2) amplitude of the fluorescence decay components; and (3) thylakoid membrane stiffness. Our study shows for the first time that isoprene maintains PSII stability at high temperatures by preventing the modifications of the surrounding environment, namely providing a more steady and homogeneous distribution of the light-absorbing centres and a stable thylakoid membrane stiffness. Isoprene photoprotects leaves with a mechanism alternative to NPQ, enabling plants to maintain a high photosynthetic rate at rising temperatures.

JTD Keywords: (High) temperature, Atomic force microscopy (AFM), Chlorophyll fluorescence (quenching and lifetime), Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM), Isoprene, Nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ), Photosynthesis


Burgués, J., Jiménez-Soto, J. M., Marco, S., (2018). Estimation of the limit of detection in semiconductor gas sensors through linearized calibration models Analytica Chimica Acta 1013, 13-25

The limit of detection (LOD) is a key figure of merit in chemical sensing. However, the estimation of this figure of merit is hindered by the non-linear calibration curve characteristic of semiconductor gas sensor technologies such as, metal oxide (MOX), gasFETs or thermoelectric sensors. Additionally, chemical sensors suffer from cross-sensitivities and temporal stability problems. The application of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) recommendations for univariate LOD estimation in non-linear semiconductor gas sensors is not straightforward due to the strong statistical requirements of the IUPAC methodology (linearity, homoscedasticity, normality). Here, we propose a methodological approach to LOD estimation through linearized calibration models. As an example, the methodology is applied to the detection of low concentrations of carbon monoxide using MOX gas sensors in a scenario where the main source of error is the presence of uncontrolled levels of humidity.

JTD Keywords: Semiconductor gas sensors, Metal-oxide sensors, Limit of detection, Non-linear, Humidity interference, Temperature modulation


Burgués, Javier, Marco, Santiago, (2018). Multivariate estimation of the limit of detection by orthogonal partial least squares in temperature-modulated MOX sensors Analytica Chimica Acta 1019, 49-64

Metal oxide semiconductor (MOX) sensors are usually temperature-modulated and calibrated with multivariate models such as Partial Least Squares (PLS) to increase the inherent low selectivity of this technology. The multivariate sensor response patterns exhibit heteroscedastic and correlated noise, which suggests that maximum likelihood methods should outperform PLS. One contribution of this paper is the comparison between PLS and maximum likelihood principal components regression (MLPCR) in MOX sensors. PLS is often criticized by the lack of interpretability when the model complexity increases beyond the chemical rank of the problem. This happens in MOX sensors due to cross-sensitivities to interferences, such as temperature or humidity and non-linearity. Additionally, the estimation of fundamental figures of merit, such as the limit of detection (LOD), is still not standardized in multivariate models. Orthogonalization methods, such as Orthogonal Projection to Latent Structures (O-PLS), have been successfully applied in other fields to reduce the complexity of PLS models. In this work, we propose a LOD estimation method based on applying the well-accepted univariate LOD formulas to the scores of the first component of an orthogonal PLS model. The resulting LOD is compared to the multivariate LOD range derived from error-propagation. The methodology is applied to data extracted from temperature-modulated MOX sensors (FIS SB-500-12 and Figaro TGS 3870-A04), aiming at the detection of low concentrations of carbon monoxide in the presence of uncontrolled humidity (chemical noise). We found that PLS models were simpler and more accurate than MLPCR models. Average LOD values of 0.79 ppm (FIS) and 1.06 ppm (Figaro) were found using the approach described in this paper. These values were contained within the LOD ranges obtained with the error-propagation approach. The mean LOD increased to 1.13 ppm (FIS) and 1.59 ppm (Figaro) when considering validation samples collected two weeks after calibration, which represents a 43% and 46% degradation, respectively. The orthogonal score-plot was a very convenient tool to visualize MOX sensor data and to validate the LOD estimates.

JTD Keywords: Metal oxide sensors, Partial least squares, Orthogonal projection to latent structures, Maximum likelihood principal component regression, Limit of detection, Temperature modulation


Burgués, J., Marco, S., (2018). Low power operation of temperature-modulated metal oxide semiconductor gas sensors Sensors 18, (2), 339

Mobile applications based on gas sensing present new opportunities for low-cost air quality monitoring, safety, and healthcare. Metal oxide semiconductor (MOX) gas sensors represent the most prominent technology for integration into portable devices, such as smartphones and wearables. Traditionally, MOX sensors have been continuously powered to increase the stability of the sensing layer. However, continuous power is not feasible in many battery-operated applications due to power consumption limitations or the intended intermittent device operation. This work benchmarks two low-power, duty-cycling, and on-demand modes against the continuous power one. The duty-cycling mode periodically turns the sensors on and off and represents a trade-off between power consumption and stability. On-demand operation achieves the lowest power consumption by powering the sensors only while taking a measurement. Twelve thermally modulated SB-500-12 (FIS Inc. Jacksonville, FL, USA) sensors were exposed to low concentrations of carbon monoxide (0–9 ppm) with environmental conditions, such as ambient humidity (15–75% relative humidity) and temperature (21–27 ◦C), varying within the indicated ranges. Partial Least Squares (PLS) models were built using calibration data, and the prediction error in external validation samples was evaluated during the two weeks following calibration. We found that on-demand operation produced a deformation of the sensor conductance patterns, which led to an increase in the prediction error by almost a factor of 5 as compared to continuous operation (2.2 versus 0.45 ppm). Applying a 10% duty-cycling operation of 10-min periods reduced this prediction error to a factor of 2 (0.9 versus 0.45 ppm). The proposed duty-cycling powering scheme saved up to 90% energy as compared to the continuous operating mode. This low-power mode may be advantageous for applications that do not require continuous and periodic measurements, and which can tolerate slightly higher prediction errors.

JTD Keywords: Smartphone, Metal-oxide semiconductor, Gas sensor, Low power, Temperature-modulation, Interferences


Burgues, J., Fonollosa, J., Marco, S., (2017). Discontinuously operated MOX sensors for low power applications IEEE Conference Publications ISOCS/IEEE International Symposium on Olfaction and Electronic Nose (ISOEN) , IEEE (Montreal, Canada) , 1-3

Metal oxide semiconductor sensors are limited by their low selectivity, high power consumption and temporal drift. This paper proposes a novel discontinuous temperature modulation operation mode characterized by on-demand measurements and periodic warm-up cycles. The performance of two sets of FIS SB-500-12 sensors, one group continuously operated and the other group discontinuously operated, was compared in a scenario of carbon monoxide detection at low concentrations for five consecutive days. Results showed that the discontinuous operating mode moderately increased the prediction error and the limit of detection but was advantageous in terms of energy savings (up to 60% with respect to the continuous temperature modulation mode).

JTD Keywords: Discontinuous operation, Duty-cycling, Low power, MOX sensors, Temperature modulation


Fernandez, L., Guney, S., Gutierrez-Galvez, A., Marco, S., (2016). Calibration transfer in temperature modulated gas sensor arrays Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical 231, 276-284

Abstract Shifts in working temperature are an important issue that prevents the successful transfer of calibration models from one chemical instrument to another. This effect is of special relevance when working with gas sensor arrays modulated in temperature. In this paper, we study the use of multivariate techniques to transfer the calibration model from a temperature modulated gas sensor array to another when a global change of temperature occurs. To do so, we built 12 identical master sensor arrays composed of three different types of commercial Figaro sensors and acquired a dataset of sensor responses to three pure substances (ethanol, acetone and butanone) dosed at 7 concentrations. The master arrays are then shifted in temperature (from −50 to 50 °C, ΔT = 10 °C) and considered as slave arrays. Data correction is performed for an increasing number of transfer samples with 4 different calibration transfer techniques: Direct Standardization, Piece-wise Direct Standardization, Orthogonal Signal Correction and Generalized Least Squares Weighting. In order to evaluate the performance of the calibration transfer, we compare the Root Mean Square Error of Prediction (RMSEP) of master and slave arrays, for each instrument correction. Best results are obtained from Piece-wise Direct standardization, which exhibits the lower RMSEP values after correction for the smaller number of transfer samples.

JTD Keywords: Calibration transfer, Gas sensor array, MOX, Temperature modulation


Huerta, R., Mosqueiro, T., Fonollosa, J., Rulkov, N.F., Rodríguez-Lujan, I., (2016). Online decorrelation of humidity and temperature in chemical sensors for continuous monitoring Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems , 157, 169-176

A method for online decorrelation of chemical sensor signals from the effects of environmental humidity and temperature variations is proposed. The goal is to improve the accuracy of electronic nose measurements for continuous monitoring by processing data from simultaneous readings of environmental humidity and temperature. The electronic nose setup built for this study included eight metal-oxide sensors, temperature and humidity sensors with a wireless communication link to external computer. This wireless electronic nose was used to monitor the air for two years in the residence of one of the authors and it collected data continuously during 537 days with a sampling rate of 1 sample per second. To estimate the effects of variations in air humidity and temperature on the chemical sensors' signals, we used a standard energy band model for an n-type metal-oxide (MOX) gas sensor. The main assumption of the model is that variations in sensor conductivity can be expressed as a nonlinear function of changes in the semiconductor energy bands in the presence of external humidity and temperature variations. Fitting this model to the collected data, we confirmed that the most statistically significant factors are humidity changes and correlated changes of temperature and humidity. This simple model achieves excellent accuracy with a coefficient of determination R2 close to 1. To show how the humidity–temperature correction model works for gas discrimination, we constructed a model for online discrimination among banana, wine and baseline response. This shows that pattern recognition algorithms improve performance and reliability by including the filtered signal of the chemical sensors.

JTD Keywords: Electronic nose, Chemical sensors, Humidity, Temperature, Decorrelation, Wireless e-nose, MOX sensors, Energy band model, Home monitoring


Oliva, A. M., Homs-Corbera, A., Torrents, E., Juarez, A., Samitier, J., (2014). Synergystic effect of temperature and electric field intensity in Escherichia coli inactivation Micro and Nanosystems , 6, (2), 79-86

Electric Fields are increasingly used to manipulate bacteria. However, there is no systematic and definitive study on how the different electric parameters change bacteria viability. Here we present a study on the effects of electric field intensity and temperature to bacterial cultures. Escherichia coli colonies have been exposed to different electric field intensities at 1MHz during 5 minutes by means of a microfluidic device specially designed for the experiment. From the analysis of the results it is possible to see that Escherichia coli survival rate diminishes when applying field intensities as low as 220V during 5 minutes. Death rates also increase when stronger fields are applied. However, viability of survived bacteria is maintained. Additionally, temperature shows a synergistic effect with voltage. When temperature was increased, results showed a stronger sensitivity of cells to the electric field. Moreover, the expression patterns of Outer Membrane Protein A and Ribosomal Proteins differ in control and treated samples, suggesting changes in bacterial metabolism and structure.

JTD Keywords: E. coli, Electric field, Temperature, Viability


Uriarte, J. J., Nonaka, P. N., Campillo, N., Palma, R. K., Melo, E., de Oliveira, L. V. F., Navajas, D., Farré, R., (2014). Mechanical properties of acellular mouse lungs after sterilization by gamma irradiation Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials , 40, 168-177

Lung bioengineering using decellularized organ scaffolds is a potential alternative for lung transplantation. Clinical application will require donor scaffold sterilization. As gamma-irradiation is a conventional method for sterilizing tissue preparations for clinical application, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of lung scaffold sterilization by gamma irradiation on the mechanical properties of the acellular lung when subjected to the artificial ventilation maneuvers typical within bioreactors. Twenty-six mouse lungs were decellularized by a sodium dodecyl sulfate detergent protocol. Eight lungs were used as controls and 18 of them were submitted to a 31kGy gamma irradiation sterilization process (9 kept frozen in dry ice and 9 at room temperature). Mechanical properties of acellular lungs were measured before and after irradiation. Lung resistance (RL) and elastance (EL) were computed by linear regression fitting of recorded signals during mechanical ventilation (tracheal pressure, flow and volume). Static (Est) and dynamic (Edyn) elastances were obtained by the end-inspiratory occlusion method. After irradiation lungs presented higher values of resistance and elastance than before irradiation: RL increased by 41.1% (room temperature irradiation) and 32.8% (frozen irradiation) and EL increased by 41.8% (room temperature irradiation) and 31.8% (frozen irradiation). Similar increases were induced by irradiation in Est and Edyn. Scanning electron microscopy showed slight structural changes after irradiation, particularly those kept frozen. Sterilization by gamma irradiation at a conventional dose to ensure sterilization modifies acellular lung mechanics, with potential implications for lung bioengineering.

JTD Keywords: Gamma irradiation, Lung bioengineering, Lung decellularization, Organ scaffold, Pulmonary mechanics, Decellularization, Gamma irradiation, Mouse lung, Pulmonary mechanics, dodecyl sulfate sodium, animal tissue, Article, artificial ventilation, bioengineering, bioreactor, compliance (physical), controlled study, freezing, gamma irradiation, lung, lung mechanics, lung resistance, male, mouse, nonhuman, room temperature, scanning electron microscopy, tissue scaffold, trachea pressure


Oliva, A. M., Homs, A., Torrents, E., Juarez, A., Samitier, J., (2014). Effect of electric field and temperature in E.Coli viability IFMBE Proceedings XIII Mediterranean Conference on Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing 2013 (ed. Roa Romero, Laura M.), Springer (Seville, Spain) 41, 1833-1836

Electromagnetic Fields are increasingly used to manipulate bacteria. However, there is no systematic and definitive study on how the different electric parameters change bacteria viability. Here we present preliminary data on the effect of electric field intensity and temperature applica- tion. E. Coli colonies have been exposed to different voltages at 1MHz during 5 minutes by means of a custom-made micro- fluidic device. Results show that E.Coli survival rate is already reduced by applying field intensities as low as 220V/cm during 5 minutes. The use of stronger fields resulted in death rates increase also. Viability of survived bacteria was maintained. On the other hand, temperature has shown a synergistic effect with voltage. When temperature is increased results seem to indicate stronger sensitivity of cells to the electric field. It is necessary to continue studying the contribution of other para- meters as intensity, time, frequency or concentration, to study further synergies.

JTD Keywords: E. Coli, Electromagnetic Field, Temperature, Viability


Fonollosa, Jordi, Fernérndez, Luis, Huerta, Ramón, Gutiérrez-Gálvez, Agustín, Marco, Santiago, (2013). Temperature optimization of metal oxide sensor arrays using Mutual Information Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical Elsevier 187, (0), 331-339

The sensitivity and selectivity of metal oxide (MOX) gas sensors change significantly when the sensors operate at different temperatures. While previous investigations have presented systematic approaches to optimize the operating temperature of a single MOX sensor, in this paper we present a methodology to select the optimal operating temperature of all the MOX sensors constituent of a gas sensor array based on the multivariate response of all the sensing elements. Our approach estimates a widely used Information Theory measure, the so-called Mutual Information (MI), which quantifies the amount of information that the state of one random variable (response of the gas sensor array) can provide from the state of another random variable representing the gas quality. More specifically, our methodology builds sensor models from experimental data to solve the technical problem of populating the joint probability distribution for the MI estimation. We demonstrate the relevance of our approach by maximizing the MI and selecting the best operating temperatures of a four-sensor array sampled at 94 different temperatures to optimize the discrimination task of ethanol, acetic acid, 2-butanone, and acetone. In addition to being applicable in principle to sensor arrays of any size, our approach gives precise information on the ability of the system to discriminate odors according to the temperature of the MOX sensors, for either the optimal set of temperatures or the temperatures that may render inefficient operation of the system itself.

JTD Keywords: MOX gas sensor, Temperature optimization, Limit of detection, Mutual Information, E-nose, Sensor array, Information Theory, Chemical sensing


Azevedo, S., Diéguez, L., Carvalho, P., Carneiro, J. O., Teixeira, V., Martínez, Elena, Samitier, J., (2012). Deposition of ITO thin films onto PMMA substrates for waveguide based biosensing devices Journal of Nano Research , 17, 75-83

Biosensors' research filed has clearly been changing towards the production of multifunctional and innovative design concepts to address the needs related with sensitivity and selectivity of the devices. More recently, waveguide biosensors, that do not require any label procedure to detect biomolecules adsorbed on its surface, have been pointed out as one of the most promising technologies for the production of biosensing devices with enhanced performance. Moreover the combination of optical and electrochemical measurements through the integration of transparent and conducting oxides in the multilayer structures can greatly enhance the biosensors' sensitivity. Furthermore, the integration of polymeric substrates may bring powerful advantages in comparison with silicon based ones. The biosensors will have a lower production costs being possible to disposable them after use ("one use sensor chip"). This research work represents a preliminary study about the influence of substrate temperature on the overall properties of ITO thin films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering onto 0,5 mm thick PMMA sheets.

JTD Keywords: ITO thin films, PMMA sheets, Waveguide biosensing devices, Biosensing devices, Conducting oxides, Dc magnetron sputtering, Electrochemical measurements, Enhanced performance, Innovative design, ITO thin films, Multilayer structures, Overall properties, PMMA sheets, Polymeric substrate, Production cost, Sensor chips, Silicon-based, Substrate temperature, Biosensors, Deposition, Design, Film preparation, Optical multilayers, Thin films, Vapor deposition, Waveguides, Substrates


Gutierrez-Galvez, Agustin, Fernandez, Luis, Marco, Santiago, (2011). Study of sensory diversity and redundancy to encode for chemical mixtures Olfaction and Electronic Nose: Proceedings of the 14th International Symposium on Olfaction and Electronic Nose AIP Conference Proceedings (ed. Perena Gouma, SUNY Stony Brook), AIP (New York City, USA) 1362, (1), 147-148

Inspired by sensory diversity and redundancy at the olfactory epithelium, we have built a large chemical sensor array based on commercial MOX sensors. Different sensor families along with temperature modulation accounts for sensory diversity, whereas sensors of the same family combined with different load resistors provide redundancy to the system. To study the encoding of odor mixtures, a data collection consisting on the response of the array to 3 binary mixtures of ethanol, acetone, and butanone with 18 different concentration ratios is obtained.

JTD Keywords: Chemioception, Sensors, Data acquisition, Temperature measurement


Perera, A., Pardo, A., Barrettino, D., Hierlermann, A., Marco, S., (2010). Evaluation of fish spoilage by means of a single metal oxide sensor under temperature modulation Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical 146, (2), 477-482

In this paper the feasibility of using metal oxide gas sensor technology for evaluating spoilage process for sea bream (Sparus aurata) is explored. It is shown that a single sensor under temperature modulation is able to find a correlation with the fish spoilage process. Results are obtained in real frigorific storage conditions: that is, at low measurement temperatures with variations of relative humidity.

JTD Keywords: Gas sensors, Electronic nose, Spoilage process, Temperature modulation, Bream sparus-aurata, Electronic nose, Freshness, Quality, Sardines, Storage


Montoliu, I., Tauler, R., Padilla, M., Pardo, A., Marco, S., (2010). Multivariate curve resolution applied to temperature modulated metal oxide gas sensors Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical 145, (1), 464-473

Metal oxide (MOX) gas sensors have been widely used for years. Temperature modulation of gas sensors is as an alternative to increase their sensitivity and selectivity to different gas species. In order to enhance the extraction of useful information from this kind of signals, data processing techniques are needed. In this work, the use of self-modelling curve resolution techniques, in particular multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS), is presented for the analysis of these signals. First, the performance of MCR in a synthetic dataset generated from temperature-modulated gas sensor response models has been evaluated, showing good results both in the resolution of gas mixtures and in the determination of concentration/sensitivity profiles. Secondly, experimental confirmation of previously obtained conclusions is attempted using temperature-modulated MOX sensors together with MCR-ALS for the analysis of carbon monoxide (CO) and methane (CH4) gas mixtures in dry air. Results allow confirming the possibility of using the proposed approach as a quantitative technique for gas mixtures analysis, and also reveal some limitations.

JTD Keywords: Temperature modulation, Multivariate curve resolution, MCR-ALS, Metal oxide sensors


Fernandez, L., Gutierrez-Galvez, A., Marco, S., (2010). Gas sensor array system inspired on the sensory diversity and redundancy of the olfactory epithelium Procedia Engineering Eurosensor XXIV Conference (ed. Jakoby, B., Vellekoop, M.J.), Elsevier Science BV (Linz, Austria) 5, (0), 25-28

This paper presents a chemical sensing system that takes inspiration from the combination of sensory diversity and redundancy at the olfactory epithelium to enhance the chemical information obtained from the odorants. The system is based on commercial MOS sensors and achieves, first, diversity trough different types of MOS along with modulation of their temperatures, and second redundancy including 12 MOS sensors for each type (12×8) combined with a high-speed multiplexing system that allows connecting 16 load resistors with each and every one of the 96 sensors in about two seconds. Exposition of the system to ethanol, ammonia, and acetone at different concentrations shows how the system is able to capture a large amount of information of the identity and the concentration of the odorant.

JTD Keywords: Gas sensor array, Biologically inspired system, Redundancy, Diversity, MOX sensors, Temperature modulation


Nussio, M. R., Oncins, G., Ridelis, I., Szili, E., Shapter, J. G., Sanz, F., Voelcker, N. H., (2009). Nanomechanical characterization of phospholipid bilayer islands on flat and porous substrates: A force spectroscopy study Journal of Physical Chemistry B , 113, (30), 10339-10347

In this study, we compare for the first time the nanomechanical properties of lipid bilayer islands on flat and porous surfaces. 1,2-Dimyzistoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayers were deposited on flat (silicon and mica) and porous silicon (pSi) substrate surfaces and examined using atomic force spectroscopy and force volume imaging. Force spectroscopy measurements revealed the effects of the underlying substrate and of the lipid phase on the nanomechanical properties of bilayers islands. For mica and silicon, significant differences in breakthrough force between the center and the edges of bilayer islands were observed for both phospolipids. These differences were more pronounced for DMPC than for DPPC, presumably due to melting effects at the edges of DMPC bilayers. In contrast, bilayer islands deposited on pSi yielded similar breakthrough forces in the central region and along the perimeter of the islands, and those values in turn were similar to those measured along the perimeter of bilayer islands deposited on the flat substrates. The study also demonstrates that pSi is suitable solid support for the formation of pore-spanning phospholipid bilayers with potential applications in transmembrane protein studies, drug delivery, and biosensing.

JTD Keywords: Black lipid-membranes, Gold surfaces, Supported bilayers, Channel activity, Micro-BLMS, Silicon, Proteins, Vesicles, AFM, Temperature measurement


Colomer-Farrarons, J., Miribel-Catala, P. L., Samitier, J., Arundell, M., Rodriguez, I., (2009). Design of a miniaturized electrochemical instrument for in-situ O/sub 2/ monitoring Sensors and Signal Conditioning VLSI Circuits and Systems IV , SPIE (Desdren, Germany) 7363, 73630A

The authors are working toward the design of a device for the detection of oxygen, following a discrete and an integrated instrumentation implementation. The discrete electronics are also used for preliminary analysis, to confirm the validity of the conception of system, and its set-up would be used in the characterization of the integrated device, waiting for the chip fabrication. This paper presents the design of a small and portable potentiostat integrated with electrodes, which is cheap and miniaturized, which can be applied for on-site measurements for the simultaneous detection of O/sub 2/ and temperature in water systems. As a first approach a discrete PCB has been designed based on commercial discrete electronics and specific oxygen sensors. Dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) is an important index of water quality and the ability to measure the oxygen concentration and temperature at different positions and depths would be an important attribute to environmental analysis. Especially, the objective is that the sensor and the electronics can be integrated in a single encapsulated device able to be submerged in environmental water systems and be able to make multiple measurements. For our proposed application a small and portable device is developed, where electronics and sensors are miniaturized and placed in close proximity to each other. This system would be based on the sensors and electronics, forming one module, and connected to a portable notebook to save and analyze the measurements on-line. The key electronics is defined by the potentiostat amplifier, used to fix the voltage between the working (WE) and reference (RE) electrodes following an input voltage (Vin). Vin is a triangular signal, programmed by a LabView/sup c / interface, which is also used to represent the CV transfers. To obtain a smaller and compact solution the potentiostat amplifier has also been integrated defining a full custom ASIC amplifier, which is in progress, looking for a point-of-care device. These circuits have been designed with a 0.13 mu m technology from ST Microelectronics through the CMP-TIMA service.

JTD Keywords: Amplifiers, Application specific integrated circuits, Chemical sensors, Electrodes, Portable instruments, Temperature measurement, Water sources