DONATE

Publications

by Keyword: hydrogels

Bonany, M, del-Mazo-Barbara, L, Espanol, M, Ginebra, MP, (2022). Microsphere incorporation as a strategy to tune the biological performance of bioinks Journal Of Tissue Engineering 13

Although alginate is widely used as a matrix in the formulation of cell-laden inks, this polymer often requires laborious processing strategies due to its lack of cell adhesion moieties. The main objective of the present work was to explore the incorporation of microspheres into alginate-based bioinks as a simple and tuneable way to solve the cell adhesion problems, while adding extra biological functionality and improving their mechanical properties. To this end, three types of microspheres with different mineral contents (i.e. gelatine with 0% of hydroxyapatite, gelatine with 25 wt% of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles and 100 wt% of calcium -deficient hydroxyapatite) were synthesised and incorporated into the formulation of cell-laden inks. The results showed that the addition of microspheres generally improved the rheological properties of the ink, favoured cell proliferation and positively affected osteogenic cell differentiation. Furthermore, this differentiation was found to be influenced by the type of microsphere and the ability of the cells to migrate towards them, which was highly dependent on the stiffness of the bioink. In this regard, Ca2+ supplementation in the cell culture medium had a pronounced effect on the relaxation of the stiffness of these cell-loaded inks, influencing the overall cell performance. In conclusion, we have developed a powerful and tuneable strategy for the fabrication of alginate-based bioinks with enhanced biological characteristics by incorporating microspheres into the initial ink formulation.; [GRAPHICS]; .

JTD Keywords: 3d bioprinting, Alginate, Behavior, Bioink, Cell-culture, Gelatin, Gelatine, Hydrogels, Hydroxyapatite, Laden, Microspheres, Mineralization, Scaffolds


Altay G, Abad-Lázaro A, Gualda EJ, Folch J, Insa C, Tosi S, Hernando-Momblona X, Batlle E, Loza-Álvarez P, Fernández-Majada V, Martinez E, (2022). Modeling Biochemical Gradients In Vitro to Control Cell Compartmentalization in a Microengineered 3D Model of the Intestinal Epithelium Advanced Healthcare Materials , 2201172

Gradients of signaling pathways within the intestinal stem cell (ISC) niche are instrumental for cellular compartmentalization and tissue function, yet how are they sensed by the epithelium is still not fully understood. Here a new in vitro model of the small intestine based on primary epithelial cells (i), apically accessible (ii), with native tissue mechanical properties and controlled mesh size (iii), 3D villus-like architecture (iv), and precisely controlled biomolecular gradients of the ISC niche (v) is presented. Biochemical gradients are formed through hydrogel-based scaffolds by free diffusion from a source to a sink chamber. To confirm the establishment of spatiotemporally controlled gradients, light-sheet fluorescence microscopy and in-silico modeling are employed. The ISC niche biochemical gradients coming from the stroma and applied along the villus axis lead to the in vivo-like compartmentalization of the proliferative and differentiated cells, while changing the composition and concentration of the biochemical factors affects the cellular organization along the villus axis. This novel 3D in vitro intestinal model derived from organoids recapitulates both the villus-like architecture and the gradients of ISC biochemical factors, thus opening the possibility to study in vitro the nature of such gradients and the resulting cellular response.© 2022 The Authors. Advanced Healthcare Materials published by Wiley-VCH GmbH.

JTD Keywords: biomolecular gradients, colon, crypt, engineering organoids, hydrogels, identification, in silico modeling, intestinal stem cell niches, light sheet fluorescence microscopy, niche, permeability, photolithography, regeneration, villus, wnt, 3d architectures, Biomolecular gradients, Engineering organoids, In silico modeling, Intestinal stem cell niches, Light sheet fluorescence microscopy, Photolithography, Stem-cell


Marhuenda, E, Villarino, A, Narciso, M, Elowsson, L, Almendros, I, Westergren-Thorsson, G, Farre, R, Gavara, N, Otero, J, (2022). Development of a physiomimetic model of acute respiratory distress syndrome by using ECM hydrogels and organ-on-a-chip devices Frontiers In Pharmacology 13, 945134

Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome is one of the more common fatal complications in COVID-19, characterized by a highly aberrant inflammatory response. Pre-clinical models to study the effect of cell therapy and anti-inflammatory treatments have not comprehensively reproduced the disease due to its high complexity. This work presents a novel physiomimetic in vitro model for Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome using lung extracellular matrix-derived hydrogels and organ-on-a-chip devices. Monolayres of primary alveolar epithelial cells were cultured on top of decellullarized lung hydrogels containing primary lung mesenchymal stromal cells. Then, cyclic stretch was applied to mimic breathing, and an inflammatory response was induced by using a bacteriotoxin hit. Having simulated the inflamed breathing lung environment, we assessed the effect of an anti-inflammatory drug (i.e., dexamethasone) by studying the secretion of the most relevant inflammatory cytokines. To better identify key players in our model, the impact of the individual factors (cyclic stretch, decellularized lung hydrogel scaffold, and the presence of mesenchymal stromal cells) was studied separately. Results showed that developed model presented a more reduced inflammatory response than traditional models, which is in line with what is expected from the response commonly observed in patients. Further, from the individual analysis of the different stimuli, it was observed that the use of extracellular matrix hydrogels obtained from decellularized lungs had the most significant impact on the change of the inflammatory response. The developed model then opens the door for further in vitro studies with a better-adjusted response to the inflammatory hit and more robust results in the test of different drugs or cell therapy.

JTD Keywords: Acute lung injury, Alveolar epithelial cells, Ards, Dexamethasone, Epithelial-mesenchymal transition, Extracellular matrix, Extracellular-matrix, Hydrogels, Inflammation, Lung-on-a-chip, Mesenchymal stromal cells, Oxygen, Stem-cells


García-Torres J, Colombi S, Macor LP, Alemán C, (2022). Multitasking smart hydrogels based on the combination of alginate and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) properties: A review International Journal Of Biological Macromolecules 219, 312-332

Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), a very stable and biocompatible conducting polymer, and alginate (Alg), a natural water-soluble polysaccharide mainly found in the cell wall of various species of brown algae, exhibit very different but at the same complementary properties. In the last few years, the remarkable capacity of Alg to form hydrogels and the electro-responsive properties of PEDOT have been combined to form not only layered composites (PEDOT-Alg) but also interpenetrated multi-responsive PEDOT/Alg hydrogels. These materials have been found to display outstanding properties, such as electrical conductivity, piezoelectricity, biocompatibility, self-healing and re-usability properties, pH and thermoelectric responsiveness, among others. Consequently, a wide number of applications are being proposed for PEDOT-Alg composites and, especially, PEDOT/Alg hydrogels, which should be considered as a new kind of hybrid material because of the very different chemical nature of the two polymeric components. This review summarizes the applications of PEDOT-Alg and PEDOT/Alg in tissue interfaces and regeneration, drug delivery, sensors, microfluidics, energy storage and evaporators for desalination. Special attention has been given to the discussion of multi-tasking applications, while the new challenges to be tackled based on aspects not yet considered in either of the two polymers have also been highlighted.Copyright © 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

JTD Keywords: Alginic acid, Conducting polymer, Semi-interpenetrated hydrogels


Perez-Madrigal, MM, Gilb, AM, Casanovas, J, Jimenez, AI, Macor, LP, Aleman, C, (2022). Self-assembly pathways in a triphenylalanine peptide capped with aromatic groups Colloids And Surfaces B-Biointerfaces 216, 112522

Peptide derivatives and, most specifically, their self-assembled supramolecular structures are being considered in the design of novel biofunctional materials. Although the self-assembly of triphenylalanine homopeptides has been found to be more versatile than that of homopeptides containing an even number of residues (i.e. diphe-nylalanine and tetraphenylalanine), only uncapped triphenylalanine (FFF) and a highly aromatic analog blocked at both the N-and C-termini with fluorenyl-containing groups (Fmoc-FFF-OFm), have been deeply studied before. In this work, we have examined the self-assembly of a triphenylalanine derivative bearing 9-fluorenylme-thyloxycarbonyl and benzyl ester end-capping groups at the N-and C-termini, respectively (Fmoc-FFF-OBzl). The antiparallel arrangement clearly dominates in beta-sheets formed by Fmoc-FFF-OBzl, whereas the parallel and antiparallel dispositions are almost isoenergetic in Fmoc-FFF-OFm beta-sheets and the parallel one is slightly favored for FFF. The effects of both the peptide concentration and the mediu m on the self-assembly process have been examined considering Fmoc-FFF-OBzl solutions in a wide variety of solvent:co-solvent mixtures. In addi-tion, Fmoc-FFF-OBzl supramolecular structures have been compared to those obtained for FFF and Fmoc-FFF-OFm under identical experimental conditions. The strength of pi-pi stacking interactions involving the end-capping groups plays a crucial role in the nucleation and growth of supramolecular structures, which de-termines the resulting morphology. Finally, the influence of a non-invasive external stimulus, ultrasounds, on the nucleation and growth of supramolecular structures has been examined. Overall, FFF-based peptides provide a wide range of supramolecular structures that can be of interest in the biotechnological field.

JTD Keywords: Amino-acids, Aromatic interactions, Beta-sheet, Fmoc, Hierarchical struc tures, Hydrogels, Phenylalanine homopeptides, Solvent, Spectroscopy, Supramolecular structures, Triphenylalanine


García-Díaz, María, Cendra, Maria del Mar, Alonso-Roman, Raquel, Urdániz, María, Torrents, Eduard, Martínez, Elena, (2022). Mimicking the Intestinal Host–Pathogen Interactions in a 3D In Vitro Model: The Role of the Mucus Layer Pharmaceutics 14, 1552

The intestinal mucus lines the luminal surface of the intestinal epithelium. This mucus is a dynamic semipermeable barrier and one of the first-line defense mechanisms against the outside environment, protecting the body against chemical, mechanical, or biological external insults. At the same time, the intestinal mucus accommodates the resident microbiota, providing nutrients and attachment sites, and therefore playing an essential role in the host–pathogen interactions and gut homeostasis. Underneath this mucus layer, the intestinal epithelium is organized into finger-like protrusions called villi and invaginations called crypts. This characteristic 3D architecture is known to influence the epithelial cell differentiation and function. However, when modelling in vitro the intestinal host–pathogen interactions, these two essential features, the intestinal mucus and the 3D topography are often not represented, thus limiting the relevance of the models. Here we present an in vitro model that mimics the small intestinal mucosa and its interactions with intestinal pathogens in a relevant manner, containing the secreted mucus layer and the epithelial barrier in a 3D villus-like hydrogel scaffold. This 3D architecture significantly enhanced the secretion of mucus. In infection with the pathogenic adherent invasive E. coli strain LF82, characteristic of Crohn’s disease, we observed that this secreted mucus promoted the adhesion of the pathogen and at the same time had a protective effect upon its invasion. This pathogenic strain was able to survive inside the epithelial cells and trigger an inflammatory response that was milder when a thick mucus layer was present. Thus, we demonstrated that our model faithfully mimics the key features of the intestinal mucosa necessary to study the interactions with intestinal pathogens.

JTD Keywords: barrier function, bile-salts, cells, drug-delivery, host-pathogen interaction, hydrogels, ileal mucosa, infection, intestinal models, intestinal mucus, microbiome, patient, responses, 3d in vitro models, Invasive escherichia-coli


Blanco-Fernandez, B, Rey-Vinolas, S, Bagci, G, Rubi-Sans, G, Otero, J, Navajas, D, Perez-Amodio, S, Engel, E, (2022). Bioprinting Decellularized Breast Tissue for the Development of Three-Dimensional Breast Cancer Models Acs Applied Materials & Interfaces 14, 29467-29482

The tumor extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a vital role in tumor progression and drug resistance. Previous studies have shown that breast tissue-derived matrices could be an important biomaterial to recreate the complexity of the tumor ECM. We have developed a method for decellularizing and delipidating a porcine breast tissue (TDM) compatible with hydrogel formation. The addition of gelatin methacrylamide and alginate allows this TDM to be bioprinted by itself with good printability, shape fidelity, and cytocompatibility. Furthermore, this bioink has been tuned to more closely recreate the breast tumor by incorporating collagen type I (Col1). Breast cancer cells (BCCs) proliferate in both TDM bioinks forming cell clusters and spheroids. The addition of Col1 improves the printability of the bioink as well as increases BCC proliferation and reduces doxorubicin sensitivity due to a downregulation of HSP90. TDM bioinks also allow a precise three-dimensional printing of scaffolds containing BCCs and stromal cells and could be used to fabricate artificial tumors. Taken together, we have proven that these novel bioinks are good candidates for biofabricating breast cancer models.

JTD Keywords: 3d in vitro cancer model, Bioink, Bioprinting, Breast tissue, Crosstalk, Decellularization, Extracellular-matrix, Growth, Hydrogels, In-vitro, Inhibition, Mechanical-properties, Metastasis, Proliferation


Marhuenda, Esther, Villarino, Alvaro, Narciso, Maria Leonor, Camprubí-Rimblas, Marta, Farré, Ramon, Gavara, Núria, Artigas, Antonio, Almendros, Isaac, Otero, Jorge, (2022). Lung Extracellular Matrix Hydrogels Enhance Preservation of Type II Phenotype in Primary Alveolar Epithelial Cells International Journal Of Molecular Sciences 23, 4888

One of the main limitations of in vitro studies on lung diseases is the difficulty of maintaining the type II phenotype of alveolar epithelial cells in culture. This fact has previously been related to the translocation of the mechanosensing Yes-associated protein (YAP) to the nuclei and Rho signaling pathway. In this work, we aimed to culture and subculture primary alveolar type II cells on extracellular matrix lung-derived hydrogels to assess their suitability for phenotype maintenance. Cells cultured on lung hydrogels formed monolayers and maintained type II phenotype for a longer time as compared with those conventionally cultured. Interestingly, cells successfully grew when they were subsequently cultured on a dish. Moreover, cells cultured on a plate showed the active form of the YAP protein and the formation of stress fibers and focal adhesions. The results of chemically inhibiting the Rho pathway strongly suggest that this is one of the mechanisms by which the hydrogel promotes type II phenotype maintenance. These results regarding protein expression strongly suggest that the chemical and biophysical properties of the hydrogel have a considerable impact on the transition from ATII to ATI phenotypes. In conclusion, culturing primary alveolar epithelial cells on lung ECM-derived hydrogels may facilitate the prolonged culturing of these cells, and thus help in the research on lung diseases.

JTD Keywords: adhesion, alveolar cells, expression, hydrogels, pathway, surfactant, type ii phenotype, yap, Extracellular matrix, Transplantation


Jain, A, Calo, A, Barcelo, D, Kumar, M, (2022). Supramolecular systems chemistry through advanced analytical techniques Analytical And Bioanalytical Chemistry 414, 5105-5119

Supramolecular chemistry is the quintessential backbone of all biological processes. It encompasses a wide range from the metabolic network to the self-assembled cytoskeletal network. Combining the chemical diversity with the plethora of functional depth that biological systems possess is a daunting task for synthetic chemists to emulate. The only route for approaching such a challenge lies in understanding the complex and dynamic systems through advanced analytical techniques. The supramolecular complexity that can be successfully generated and analyzed is directly dependent on the analytical treatment of the system parameters. In this review, we illustrate advanced analytical techniques that have been used to investigate various supramolecular systems including complex mixtures, dynamic self-assembly, and functional nanomaterials. The underlying theme of such an overview is not only the exceeding detail with which traditional experiments can be probed but also the fact that complex experiments can now be attempted owing to the analytical techniques that can resolve an ensemble in astounding detail. Furthermore, the review critically analyzes the current state of the art analytical techniques and suggests the direction of future development. Finally, we envision that integrating multiple analytical methods into a common platform will open completely new possibilities for developing functional chemical systems.

JTD Keywords: analytical techniques, dynamic self-assembly, high-speed afm, liquid cell tem, Analytical technique, Analytical techniques, Biological process, Chemical analysis, Chemical diversity, Complex networks, Cytoskeletal network, Dynamic self-assembly, High-speed afm, Hydrogels, In-situ, Liquid cell tem, Metabolic network, Microscopy, Nanoscale, Proteins, Self assembly, Supramolecular chemistry, Supramolecular systems, System chemistry, Systems chemistry


Tejo-Otero A, Fenollosa-Artés F, Achaerandio I, Rey-Vinolas S, Buj-Corral I, Mateos-Timoneda MÁ, Engel E, (2022). Soft-Tissue-Mimicking Using Hydrogels for the Development of Phantoms Gels 8, 40

With the currently available materials and technologies it is difficult to mimic the mechanical properties of soft living tissues. Additionally, another significant problem is the lack of information about the mechanical properties of these tissues. Alternatively, the use of phantoms offers a promising solution to simulate biological bodies. For this reason, to advance in the state-of-the-art a wide range of organs (e.g., liver, heart, kidney as well as brain) and hydrogels (e.g., agarose, polyvinyl alcohol –PVA–, Phytagel –PHY– and methacrylate gelatine –GelMA–) were tested regarding their mechanical properties. For that, viscoelastic behavior, hardness, as well as a non-linear elastic mechanical response were measured. It was seen that there was a significant difference among the results for the different mentioned soft tissues. Some of them appear to be more elastic than viscous as well as being softer or harder. With all this information in mind, a correlation between the mechanical properties of the organs and the different materials was performed. The next conclusions were drawn: (1) to mimic the liver, the best material is 1% wt agarose; (2) to mimic the heart, the best material is 2% wt agarose; (3) to mimic the kidney, the best material is 4% wt GelMA; and (4) to mimic the brain, the best materials are 4% wt GelMA and 1% wt agarose. Neither PVA nor PHY was selected to mimic any of the studied tissues. © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

JTD Keywords: brain, composite hydrogel, elastography, hardness, hydrogels, in-vitro, liver, materials, mechanical-properties, mimicking, soft tissues, tissue scaffolding, viscoelasticity, warner-braztler shear test, Dynamic mechanical analysis, Hardness, Hydrogels, Materials, Mimicking, Soft tissues, Tissue scaffolding, Viscoelastic characterization, Viscoelasticity, Warner–braztler shear test


Duro-Castano, Aroa, Rodríguez-Arco, Laura, Ruiz-Pérez, Lorena, De Pace, Cesare, Marchello, Gabriele, Noble-Jesus, Carlos, Battaglia, Giuseppe, (2021). One-Pot Synthesis of Oxidation-Sensitive Supramolecular Gels and Vesicles Biomacromolecules 22, 5052-5064

Polypeptide-based nanoparticles offer unique advantages from a nanomedicine perspective such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, and stimuli-responsive properties to (patho)physiological conditions. Conventionally, self-assembled polypeptide nanostructures are prepared by first synthesizing their constituent amphiphilic polypeptides followed by postpolymerization self-assembly. Herein, we describe the one-pot synthesis of oxidation-sensitive supramolecular micelles and vesicles. This was achieved by polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA) of the N-carboxyanhydride (NCA) precursor of methionine using poly(ethylene oxide) as a stabilizing and hydrophilic block in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). By adjusting the hydrophobic block length and concentration, we obtained a range of morphologies from spherical to wormlike micelles, to vesicles. Remarkably, the secondary structure of polypeptides greatly influenced the final morphology of the assemblies. Surprisingly, wormlike micellar morphologies were obtained for a wide range of methionine block lengths and solid contents, with spherical micelles restricted to very short hydrophobic lengths. Wormlike micelles further assembled into oxidation-sensitive, self-standing gels in the reaction pot. Both vesicles and wormlike micelles obtained using this method demonstrated to degrade under controlled oxidant conditions, which would expand their biomedical applications such as in sustained drug release or as cellular scaffolds in tissue engineering.

JTD Keywords: alpha-amino-acid, hydrogels, leuchs anhydrides, platform, polypeptides, transformation, triggered cargo release, Amino acids, Amphiphilics, Biocompatibility, Biodegradability, Block lengths, Controlled drug delivery, Dimethyl sulfoxide, Ethylene, Gels, Hydrophobicity, Medical nanotechnology, Methionine, Micelles, Morphology, One-pot synthesis, Organic solvents, Oxidation, Physiological condition, Polyethylene oxides, Post-polymerization, Ring-opening polymerization, Scaffolds (biology), Self assembly, Stimuli-responsive properties, Supramolecular chemistry, Supramolecular gels, Supramolecular micelles, Wormlike micelle


Pérez-Rafael S, Ivanova K, Stefanov I, Puiggalí J, del Valle LJ, Todorova K, Dimitrov P, Hinojosa-Caballero D, Tzanov T, (2021). Nanoparticle-driven self-assembling injectable hydrogels provide a multi-factorial approach for chronic wound treatment Acta Biomaterialia 134, 131-143

Chronic wounds represent a major health burden and drain on medical system. Efficient wound repair is only possible if the dressing materials target simultaneously multiple factors involved in wound chronicity, such as deleterious proteolytic and oxidative enzymes and high bacterial load. Here we develop multifunctional hydrogels for chronic wound management through self-assembling of thiolated hyaluronic acid (HA-SH) and bioactive silver-lignin nanoparticles (Ag@Lig NPs). Dynamic and reversible interactions between the polymer and Ag@Lig NPs yield hybrid nanocomposite hydrogels with shear-thinning and self-healing properties, coupled to zero-order kinetics release of antimicrobial silver in response to infection-related hyalurodinase. The hydrogels inhibit the major enzymes myeloperoxidase and matrix metalloproteinases responsible for wound chronicity in a patient's wound exudate. Furthermore, the lignin-capped AgNPs provide the hydrogel with antioxidant properties and strong antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The nanocomposite hydrogels are not toxic to human keratinocytes after 7 days of direct contact. Complete tissue remodeling and restoration of skin integrity is demonstrated in vivo in a diabetic mouse model. Hematological analysis reveals lack of wound inflammation due to bacterial infection or toxicity, confirming the potential of HA-SH/Ag@Lig NPs hydrogels for chronic wound management. Statement of significance: Multifunctional hydrogels are promising materials to promote healing of complex wounds. Herein, we report simple and versatile route to prepare biocompatible and multifunctional self-assembled hydrogels for efficient chronic wound treatment utilizing polymer-nanoparticle interactions. Hybrid silver-lignin nanoparticles (Ag@Lig NPs) played both: i) structural role, acting as crosslinking nodes in the hydrogel and endowing it with shear-thinning (ability to flow under applied shear stress) and self-healing properties, and ii) functional role, imparting strong antibacterial and antioxidant activity. Remarkably, the in situ self-assembling of thiolated hyaluronic acid and Ag@Lig NPs yields nanocomposite hydrogels able to simultaneously inhibits the major factors involved in wound chronicity, namely the overexpressed deleterious proteolytic and oxidative enzymes, and high bacterial load.

JTD Keywords: catechol, chronic wounds, dressing materials, inhibition, mechanism, nano-enabled hydrogels, polyphenols, promogran, self-assembling, silver-lignin nanoparticles, systems, tannins, Chronic wounds, Degradation, Dressing materials, Nano-enabled hydrogels, Self-assembling, Silver-lignin nanoparticles, Thiolated hyaluronic acid


Puiggalí-Jou A, Babeli I, Roa JJ, Zoppe JO, Garcia-Amorós J, Ginebra MP, Alemán C, Garciá-Torres J, (2021). Remote Spatiotemporal Control of a Magnetic and Electroconductive Hydrogel Network via Magnetic Fields for Soft Electronic Applications Acs Applied Materials & Interfaces 13, 42486-42501

Multifunctional hydrogels are a class of materials offering new opportunities for interfacing living organisms with machines due to their mechanical compliance, biocompatibility, and capacity to be triggered by external stimuli. Here, we report a dual magnetic- and electric-stimuli-responsive hydrogel with the capacity to be disassembled and reassembled up to three times through reversible cross-links. This allows its use as an electronic device (e.g., temperature sensor) in the cross-linked state and spatiotemporal control through narrow channels in the disassembled state via the application of magnetic fields, followed by reassembly. The hydrogel consists of an interpenetrated polymer network of alginate (Alg) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), which imparts mechanical and electrical properties, respectively. In addition, the incorporation of magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) endows the hydrogel with magnetic properties. After structural, (electro)chemical, and physical characterization, we successfully performed dynamic and continuous transport of the hydrogel through disassembly, transporting the polymer-Fe3O4 NP aggregates toward a target using magnetic fields and its final reassembly to recover the multifunctional hydrogel in the cross-linked state. We also successfully tested the PEDOT/Alg/Fe3O4 NP hydrogel for temperature sensing and magnetic hyperthermia after various disassembly/re-cross-linking cycles. The present methodology can pave the way to a new generation of soft electronic devices with the capacity to be remotely transported.

JTD Keywords: conductive hydrogel, constructs, magnetic field, magnetite nanoparticle, nanoindentation, soft electronics, spatiotemporal control, Conductive hydrogel, Conductive hydrogels, Magnetic field, Magnetite nanoparticle, Soft electronics, Spatiotemporal control


Rial-Hermida MI, Rey-Rico A, Blanco-Fernandez B, Carballo-Pedrares N, Byrne EM, Mano JF, (2021). Recent Progress on Polysaccharide-Based Hydrogels for Controlled Delivery of Therapeutic Biomolecules Acs Biomaterials Science & Engineering 7, 4102-4127

A plethora of applications using polysaccharides have been developed in recent years due to their availability as well as their frequent nontoxicity and biodegradability. These polymers are usually obtained from renewable sources or are byproducts of industrial processes, thus, their use is collaborative in waste management and shows promise for an enhanced sustainable circular economy. Regarding the development of novel delivery systems for biotherapeutics, the potential of polysaccharides is attractive for the previously mentioned properties and also for the possibility of chemical modification of their structures, their ability to form matrixes of diverse architectures and mechanical properties, as well as for their ability to maintain bioactivity following incorporation of the biomolecules into the matrix. Biotherapeutics, such as proteins, growth factors, gene vectors, enzymes, hormones, DNA/RNA, and antibodies are currently in use as major therapeutics in a wide range of pathologies. In the present review, we summarize recent progress in the development of polysaccharide-based hydrogels of diverse nature, alone or in combination with other polymers or drug delivery systems, which have been implemented in the delivery of biotherapeutics in the pharmaceutical and biomedical fields. © 2021 American Chemical Society.

JTD Keywords: biodegradable dextran hydrogels, biotherapeutics, bone morphogenetic protein-2, carrageenan-based hydrogels, chitosan-based hydrogels, controlled delivery, controlled-release, cross-linked hydrogels, growth-factor delivery, hydrogels, in-vitro characterization, polysaccharides, self-healing hydrogel, stimuli-responsiveness, tissue engineering, Antibodies, Bioactivity, Biodegradability, Biomedical fields, Biomolecules, Biotherapeutics, Chemical modification, Circular economy, Controlled delivery, Controlled drug delivery, Delivery systems, Drug delivery system, Functional polymers, Hyaluronic-acid hydrogels, Hydrogels, Industrial processs, Polysaccharides, Recent progress, Renewable sources, Stimuli-responsiveness, Targeted drug delivery, Tissue engineering, Waste management


Falcones B, Sanz-Fraile H, Marhuenda E, Mendizábal I, Cabrera-Aguilera I, Malandain N, Uriarte JJ, Almendros I, Navajas D, Weiss DJ, Farré R, Otero J, (2021). Bioprintable lung extracellular matrix hydrogel scaffolds for 3d culture of mesenchymal stromal cells Polymers 13, 2350

Mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC)-based cell therapy in acute respiratory diseases is based on MSC secretion of paracrine factors. Several strategies have proposed to improve this are being explored including pre-conditioning the MSCs prior to administration. We here propose a strategy for improving the therapeutic efficacy of MSCs based on cell preconditioning by growing them in native extracellular matrix (ECM) derived from the lung. To this end, a bioink with tunable stiffness based on decellularized porcine lung ECM hydrogels was developed and characterized. The bioink was suitable for 3D culturing of lung-resident MSCs without the need for additional chemical or physical crosslinking. MSCs showed good viability, and contraction assays showed the existence of cell–matrix interactions in the bioprinted scaffolds. Adhesion capacity and length of the focal adhesions formed were increased for the cells cultured within the lung hydrogel scaffolds. Also, there was more than a 20-fold increase of the expression of the CXCR4 receptor in the 3D-cultured cells compared to the cells cultured in plastic. Secretion of cytokines when cultured in an in vitro model of lung injury showed a decreased secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators for the cells cultured in the 3D scaffolds. Moreover, the morphology of the harvested cells was markedly different with respect to conventionally (2D) cultured MSCs. In conclusion, the developed bioink can be used to bioprint structures aimed to improve preconditioning MSCs for therapeutic purposes.

JTD Keywords: 3d bioprinting, acute lung injury, adhesion, collagen, differentiation, dimension, elastic properties, extracellular matrix, hydrogels, in-vitro, mechanical-properties, mesenchymal stromal cells, microenvironment, potentiate, tissue engineering, 3d bioprinting, Acute lung injury, Extracellular matrix, Hydrogels, Mesenchymal stromal cells, Stem-cells, Tissue engineering


Abramov A, Maiti B, Keridou I, Puiggalí J, Reiser O, Díaz DD, (2021). A pH-Triggered Polymer Degradation or Drug Delivery System by Light-Mediated Cis/Trans Isomerization of o-Hydroxy Cinnamates Macromolecular Rapid Communications 42, 2100213

A new methodology for the pH-triggered degradation of polymers or for the release of drugs under visible light irradiation based on the cyclization of ortho-hydroxy-cinnamates (oHC) to coumarins is described. The key oHC structural motif can be readily incorporated into the rational design of novel photocleavable polymers via click chemistry. This main-chain moiety undergoes a fast photocleavage when irradiated with 455 nm light provided that a suitable base is added. A series of polyethylene glycol-alt-ortho-hydroxy cinnamate (polyethylene glycol (PEG)(n)-alt-oHC)-based polymers are synthesized and the time-dependent visible-light initiated cleavage of the photoactive monomer and polymer is investigated in solution by a variety of spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques. The photo-degradation behavior of the water-soluble poly(PEG(2000)-alt-oHC) is investigated within a broad pH range (pH = 2.1-11.8), demonstrating fast degradation at pH 11.8, while the stability of the polymer is greatly enhanced at pH 2.1. Moreover, the neat polymer shows long-term stability under daylight conditions, thus allowing its storage without special precautions. In addition, two water-soluble PEG-based drug-carrier molecules (mPEG(2000)-oHC-benzhydrol/phenol) are synthesized and used for drug delivery studies, monitoring the process by UV-vis spectroscopy in an ON/OFF intermittent manner.

JTD Keywords: coumarins, drug delivery, e/z-double bond isomerization, o-hydroxy cinnamates, polymer degradation, Aliphatic compounds, Antioxidant activity, Antitumor, Chromatographic techniques, Chromatography, Cis/trans isomerization, Controlled drug delivery, Coumarin derivatives, Coumarins, Drug delivery, Drug delivery system, E/z-double bond isomerization, Films, Hydrogels, Image enhancement, Light, Long term stability, O-hydroxy cinnamates, Particles, Photoactive monomers, Photodegradation, Polyethylene glycols, Polyethylenes, Polymer degradation, Responsive polymers, Salts, Structural motifs, Synthesis (chemical), Targeted drug delivery, Visible light photocatalysis, Visible-light irradiation


Elosegui-Artola A, (2021). The extracellular matrix viscoelasticity as a regulator of cell and tissue dynamics Current Opinion In Cell Biology 72, 10-18

The extracellular matrix mechanical properties regulate processes in development, cancer, and fibrosis. Among the distinct mechanical properties, the vast majority of research has focused on the extracellular matrix's elasticity as the primary determinant of cell and tissue behavior. However, both cells and the extracellular matrix are not only elastic but also viscous. Despite viscoelasticity being a universal feature of living tissues, our knowledge of the influence of the extracellular matrix's viscoelasticity in cell behavior is limited. This mini-review describes some of the recent findings that have highlighted the role of the extracellular matrix's viscoelasticity in cell and tissue dynamics.

JTD Keywords: behavior, cell adhesion, cell mechanics, cell migration, deformability, extracellular matrix, extracellular matrix mechanics, fluidity, forces, hydrogels, mechanobiology, mechanotransduction, tissue mechanics, viscoelasticity, viscosity, Cell adhesion, Cell mechanics, Cell migration, Extracellular matrix, Extracellular matrix mechanics, Fluidity, Mechanobiology, Mechanotransduction, Migration, Tissue mechanics, Viscoelasticity, Viscosity


Babeli I, Ruano G, Puiggalí-Jou A, Ginebra MP, Alemán C, Garcia-Torres J, (2021). Self-Healable and Eco-Friendly Hydrogels for Flexible Supercapacitors Advanced Sustainable Systems 5, 2000273

© 2021 Wiley-VCH GmbH One limitation of wearable electronics, and at the same time a challenge, is the lack of energy storage devices with multiple functionalities produced using clean and environmental-friendly strategies. Here, a multifunctional conductive hydrogel containing poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and alginate is fabricated, to be used as electrodes in supercapacitors, by applying water-mediated self-assembly and polymerization processes at room temperature. The interpenetration of both polymers allows the combination of flexibility and self-healing properties within the same hydrogel together with the intrinsic biocompatibility and sustainability of such materials. Initially, PEDOT:polystyrene sulfonate and alginate aqueous solutions are mixed in two different proportions (1:1 and 1:3) and ionically crosslinked with CaCl2. Subsequently, re-interpenetration of poly(hydroxymethyl-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) by anodic polymerization in CaCl2 aqueous solution is achieved. Re-interpenetrated 1:3 PEDOT/alginate hydrogels show excellent capacitance values (35 mF cm−2) and good capacitance retention. In addition, the electrochemical properties are not significantly changed after many cutting/self-healing cycles as observed by cyclic voltammetry. Therefore, this sustainably produced hydrogel shows promising properties for use in wearable energy storage devices.

JTD Keywords: flexibility, pedot:pss-alginate hydrogels, self-healing, sustainability, Electrochemical supercapacitors, Flexibility, Pedot:pss-alginate hydrogels, Self-healing, Sustainability


Ruano G, Iribarren JI, Pérez-Madrigal MM, Torras J, Alemán C, (2021). Electrical and capacitive response of hydrogel solid-like electrolytes for supercapacitors Polymers 13, 1337

Flexible hydrogels are attracting significant interest as solid-like electrolytes for energy storage devices, especially for supercapacitors, because of their lightweight and anti-deformation features. Here, we present a comparative study of four ionic conductive hydrogels derived from biopolymers and doped with 0.1 M NaCl. More specifically, such hydrogels are constituted by κcarrageenan (κC), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), poly-γ-glutamic acid (PGGA) or a phenylalaninecontaining polyesteramide (PEA). After examining the morphology and the swelling ratio of the four hydrogels, which varies between 483% and 2356%, their electrical and capacitive behaviors were examined using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Measurements were conducted on devices where a hydrogel film was sandwiched between two identical poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) electrodes. The bulk conductivity of the prepared doped hydrogels is 76, 48, 36 and 34 mS/cm for PEA, PGGA, κC and CMC, respectively. Overall, the polyesteramide hydrogel exhibits the most adequate properties (i.e., low electrical resistance and high capacitance) to be used as semi-solid electrolyte for supercapacitors, which has been attributed to its distinctive structure based on the homogeneous and abundant distribution of both micro-and nanopores. Indeed, the morphology of the polyestermide hydrogel reduces the hydrogel resistance, enhances the transport of ions, and results in a better interfacial contact between the electrodes and solid electrolyte. The correlation between the supercapacitor performance and the hydrogel porous morphology is presented as an important design feature for the next generation of light and flexible energy storage devices for wearable electronics.

JTD Keywords: biopolymers, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, flexible hydrogels, supercapacitor, Biopolymers, Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, Flexible hydrogels, Supercapacitor


Blanco-Fernandez B, Gaspar VM, Engel E, Mano JF, (2021). Proteinaceous Hydrogels for Bioengineering Advanced 3D Tumor Models Advanced Science 8, 2003129

© 2020 The Authors. Advanced Science published by Wiley-VCH GmbH The establishment of tumor microenvironment using biomimetic in vitro models that recapitulate key tumor hallmarks including the tumor supporting extracellular matrix (ECM) is in high demand for accelerating the discovery and preclinical validation of more effective anticancer therapeutics. To date, ECM-mimetic hydrogels have been widely explored for 3D in vitro disease modeling owing to their bioactive properties that can be further adapted to the biochemical and biophysical properties of native tumors. Gathering on this momentum, herein the current landscape of intrinsically bioactive protein and peptide hydrogels that have been employed for 3D tumor modeling are discussed. Initially, the importance of recreating such microenvironment and the main considerations for generating ECM-mimetic 3D hydrogel in vitro tumor models are showcased. A comprehensive discussion focusing protein, peptide, or hybrid ECM-mimetic platforms employed for modeling cancer cells/stroma cross-talk and for the preclinical evaluation of candidate anticancer therapies is also provided. Further development of tumor-tunable, proteinaceous or peptide 3D microtesting platforms with microenvironment-specific biophysical and biomolecular cues will contribute to better mimic the in vivo scenario, and improve the predictability of preclinical screening of generalized or personalized therapeutics.

JTD Keywords: 3d in vitro models, cancers, hydrogels, peptides, 3d in vitro models, Cancers, Hydrogels, Peptides, Proteins


Olate-Moya, F., Arens, L., Wilhelm, M., Mateos-Timoneda, M. A., Engel, E., Palza, H., (2020). Chondroinductive alginate-based hydrogels having graphene oxide for 3D printed scaffold fabrication ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces 12, (4), 4343-4357

Scaffolds based on bioconjugated hydrogels are attractive for tissue engineering because they can partly mimic human tissue characteristics. For example, they can further increase their bioactivity with cells. However, most of the hydrogels present problems related to their processability, consequently limiting their use in 3D printing to produce tailor-made scaffolds. The goal of this work is to develop bioconjugated hydrogel nanocomposite inks for 3D printed scaffold fabrication through a micro-extrusion process having improved both biocompatibility and processability. The hydrogel is based on a photocrosslinkable alginate bioconjugated with both gelatin and chondroitin sulfate in order to mimic the cartilage extracellular matrix, while the nanofiller is based on graphene oxide to enhance the printability and cell proliferation. Our results show that the incorporation of graphene oxide into the hydrogel inks considerably improved the shape fidelity and resolution of 3D printed scaffolds because of a faster viscosity recovery post extrusion of the ink. Moreover, the nanocomposite inks produce anisotropic threads after the 3D printing process because of the templating of the graphene oxide liquid crystal. The in vitro proliferation assay of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADMSCs) shows that bioconjugated scaffolds present higher cell proliferation than pure alginate, with the nanocomposites presenting the highest values at long times. Live/Dead assay otherwise displays full viability of hADMSCs adhered on the different scaffolds at day 7. Notably, the scaffolds produced with nanocomposite hydrogel inks were able to guide the cell proliferation following the direction of the 3D printed threads. In addition, the bioconjugated alginate hydrogel matrix induced chondrogenic differentiation without exogenous pro-chondrogenesis factors as concluded from immunostaining after 28 days of culture. This high cytocompatibility and chondroinductive effect toward hADMSCs, together with the improved printability and anisotropic structures, makes these nanocomposite hydrogel inks a promising candidate for cartilage tissue engineering based on 3D printing.

JTD Keywords: 3D printing, Chondrogenesis, Graphene oxide, Hydrogels, Liquid crystals


Bertran, O., Saldías, C., Díaz, D. D., Alemán, C., (2020). Molecular dynamics simulations on self-healing behavior of ionene polymer-based nanostructured hydrogels Polymer 211, 123072

The microscopic mechanism accounting for the self-healing attribute of aromatic ionene-forming hydrogels derived from 1,4-diazabicyclo [2.2.2]octane (DABCO) and N,N’-(x-phenylene)dibenzamide (x = ortho-/meta-/para-) is unknown. Interestingly, the self-healing property of such DABCO-containing hydrogels is largely dependent on the polymer topology, the ortho ionene being the only self-healable without adding oppositely charged species. In this work, Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations have been conducted to evaluate the influence of the topology on ionene···ionene and ionene··water interactions, as well as their effect on the self-healing behavior. For this purpose, destabilized and structurally damaged models were produced for ionene hydrogels with ortho, meta and para topologies and used as starting geometries for simulations. These models were allowed to evolve without any restriction during MD production runs and, subsequently, the temporal evolution of ionene···ionene and water···ionene interactions was examined. Analysis of the results indicated that the ortho-isomer rapidly forms unique interactions that are not detected for other two isomers. Thus, in addition to the interactions also identified for the meta-and para-ionenes, the ortho-isomer exhibits the formation of strong intermolecular three-centered (N–)H⋯O (=C)⋯H (–N) hydrogen bonds, intramolecular planar sandwich π-π stacking interactions and Cl−···N+ electrostatic interactions. Furthermore, the amount of intermolecular π-π stacking interactions and the strength of water···polymer interaction are also influenced by the topology, favoring the stabilization of the ortho-ionene reconstituted hydrogels. Overall, the arrangement of the functional groups in the ortho topology favors the formation of more types of ionene···ionene interactions, as well as stronger interactions, than in the meta and para topologies.

JTD Keywords: DABCO, Econstituted hydrogels, Molecular dynamics, Polyelectrolyte hydrogels, Self-healing mechanism


Fuentes, E., Bohá, Fuentes-Caparrós, A. M., Schweins, R., Draper, E. R., Adams, D. J., Pujals, S., Albertazzi, L., (2020). PAINT-ing fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc)-diphenylalanine hydrogels Chemistry - A European Journal 26, (44), 9869-9873

Self-assembly of fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl-protected diphenylalanine (FmocFF) in water is widely known to produce hydrogels. Typically, confocal microscopy is used to visualize such hydrogels under wet conditions, that is, without freezing or drying. However, key aspects of hydrogels like fiber diameter, network morphology and mesh size are sub-diffraction limited features and cannot be visualized effectively using this approach. In this work, we show that it is possible to image FmocFF hydrogels by Points Accumulation for Imaging in Nanoscale Topography (PAINT) in native conditions and without direct gel labelling. We demonstrate that the fiber network can be visualized with improved resolution (≈50 nm) both in 2D and 3D. Quantitative information is extracted such as mesh size and fiber diameter. This method can complement the existing characterization tools for hydrogels and provide useful information supporting the design of new materials.

JTD Keywords: FmocFF, Hydrogels, Mesh size, PAINT, Super-resolution


Maiti, B., Abramov, A., Franco, L., Puiggalí, J., Enshaei, H., Alemán, C., Díaz, D. D., (2020). Thermoresponsive shape-memory hydrogel actuators made by phototriggered click chemistry Advanced Functional Materials 30, (24), 2001683

This article describes the design and synthesis of a new series of hydrogel membranes composed of trialkyne derivatives of glycerol ethoxylate and bisphenol A diazide (BA-diazide) or diazide-terminated PEG600 monomer via a Cu(I)-catalyzed photoclick reaction. The water-swollen hydrogel membranes display thermoresponsive actuation and their lower critical solution temperature (LCST) values are determined by differential scanning calorimetry. Glycerol ethoxylate moiety serves as the thermoresponsive component and hydrophilic part, while the azide-based component acts as the hydrophobic comonomer and most likely provides a critical hydrophobic/hydrophilic balance contributing also to the significant mechanical strength of the membranes. These hydrogels exhibit a reversible shape-memory effect in response to temperature through a defined phase transition. The swelling and deswelling behavior of the membranes are systematically examined. Due to the click nature of the reaction, easy availability of azide and alkyne functional-monomers, and the polymer architecture, the glass transition temperature (Tg) is easily controlled through monomer design and crosslink density by varying the feed ratio of different monomers. The mechanical properties of the membranes are studied by universal tensile testing measurements. Moreover, the hydrogels show the ability to absorb a dye and release it in a controlled manner by applying heat below and above the LCST.

JTD Keywords: Hydrogels, Membranes, Photoclick, Polymers, Shape-memory, Thermoresponsive


Lanzalaco, S., Turon, P., Weis, C., Mata, C., Planas, E., Alemán, C., Armelin, E., (2020). Toward the new generation of surgical meshes with 4D response: Soft, dynamic, and adaptable Advanced Functional Materials 30, (36), 2004145

Herein, a facile approach toward transforming a 2D polypropylene flexible mesh material into a 4D dynamic system is presented. The versatile platform, composed by a substrate of knitted fibers of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) mesh and a coating of thermosensitive poly(N‐isopropylacrylamide‐co‐N,N’‐methylene bis(acrylamide) (PNIPAAm‐co‐MBA) hydrogel, covalently bonded to the mesh surface, after cold‐plasma surface treatment and radical polymerization, is intended to undergo variations in its geometry via its reversible folding/unfolding behavior. The study is the first to trace the 3D movement of a flat surgical mesh, intended to repair hernia defects, under temperature and humidity control. An infrared thermographic camera and an optical microscope are used to evaluate the macroscopic and microscopic structure stimulus response. The presence of the PP substrate and the distribution of the gel surrounding the PP threads, affect both the PNIPAAM gel expansion/contraction as well as the time of folding/unfolding response. Furthermore, PP‐g‐PNIPAAm meshes show an increase in the bursting strength of ≈16% with respect to the uncoated mesh, offering a strongest and adaptable system for its future implantation in human body. The findings reported offer unprecedented application possibilities in the biomedical field.

JTD Keywords: Dynamic devices, Polypropylene meshes, Surgical implants, Thermosensitive hydrogels


Otero, J., Navajas, D., Alcaraz, J., (2020). Characterization of the elastic properties of extracellular matrix models by atomic force microscopy Methods in Cell Biology (ed. Caballero, David, Kundu, Subhas C., Reis, Rui L.), Academic Press (Cambridge, USA) 156, 59-83

Tissue elasticity is a critical regulator of cell behavior in normal and diseased conditions like fibrosis and cancer. Since the extracellular matrix (ECM) is a major regulator of tissue elasticity and function, several ECM-based models have emerged in the last decades, including in vitro endogenous ECM, decellularized tissue ECM and ECM hydrogels. The development of such models has urged the need to quantify their elastic properties particularly at the nanometer scale, which is the relevant length scale for cell-ECM interactions. For this purpose, the versatility of atomic force microscopy (AFM) to quantify the nanomechanical properties of soft biomaterials like ECM models has emerged as a very suitable technique. In this chapter we provide a detailed protocol on how to assess the Young's elastic modulus of ECM models by AFM, discuss some of the critical issues, and provide troubleshooting guidelines as well as illustrative examples of AFM measurements, particularly in the context of cancer.

JTD Keywords: 3D ECM hydrogels, Atomic force microscopy, Decellularized tissue, Elastic modulus, Endogenous ECM, Extracellular matrix


De Koker, Stefaan, Cui, Jiwei, Vanparijs, Nane, Albertazzi, Lorenzo, Grooten, Johan, Caruso, Frank, De Geest, Bruno G., (2016). Engineering polymer hydrogel nanoparticles for lymph node-targeted delivery Angewandte Chemie - International Edition 55, (4), 1334-1339

The induction of antigen-specific adaptive immunity exclusively occurs in lymphoid organs. As a consequence, the efficacy by which vaccines reach these tissues strongly affects the efficacy of the vaccine. Here, we report the design of polymer hydrogel nanoparticles that efficiently target multiple immune cell subsets in the draining lymph nodes. Nanoparticles are fabricated by infiltrating mesoporous silica particles (ca. 200 nm) with poly(methacrylic acid) followed by disulfide-based crosslinking and template removal. PEGylation of these nanoparticles does not affect their cellular association in vitro, but dramatically improves their lymphatic drainage in vivo. The functional relevance of these observations is further illustrated by the increased priming of antigen-specific T cells. Our findings highlight the potential of engineered hydrogel nanoparticles for the lymphatic delivery of antigens and immune-modulating compounds.

JTD Keywords: Dendritic cells, Disulfides, Hydrogels, Nanoparticles, Vaccines


Yue, J. J., Morgenstern, R., Morgenstern, C., Lauryssen, C., (2011). Shape memory hydrogels - A novel material for treating age-related degenerative conditions of the Spine European Musculoskeletal Review , 6, (3), 184-188

Hydrogels are water-insoluble hydrophilic polymers used in a wide range of medical products such as, drug delivery, tissue replacement, heart surgery, gynaecology, ophthalmology, plastic surgery and orthopaedic surgery. These polymers exhibit low toxicity, reduced tissue adherence, and are highly biocompatible. A class of hydrogels, hydrolysed polyacrylonitriles, possess unique shape memory properties, which, when combined with biodurability, mechanical strength and viscoelasticity make them ideal for treating certain degenerative conditions of the spine. Animal and other in vitro studies have shown that the hydrogel is biocompatible and well tolerated by host tissues. This article focuses on two specific indications in spine surgery that demonstrate the potential of hydrogel-based technology to provide significant treatment advantages.

JTD Keywords: Biocompatibility, Degenerative disc disease, Hydrolysed polyacrylonitrile, Minimally invasive surgery, Shape memory hydrogel, Spinal stenosis