by Keyword: Nanoparticles

Diez-Escudero, A, Espanol, M, Ginebra, MP, (2023). High-aspect-ratio nanostructured hydroxyapatite: towards new functionalities for a classical material Chemical Science 15, 55-76

Hydroxyapatite-based materials have been widely used in countless applications, such as bone regeneration, catalysis, air and water purification or protein separation. Recently, much interest has been given to controlling the aspect ratio of hydroxyapatite crystals from bulk samples. The ability to exert control over the aspect ratio may revolutionize the applications of these materials towards new functional materials. Controlling the shape, size and orientation of HA crystals allows obtaining high aspect ratio structures, improving several key properties of HA materials such as molecule adsorption, ion exchange, catalytic reactions, and even overcoming the well-known brittleness of ceramic materials. Regulating the morphogenesis of HA crystals to form elongated oriented fibres has led to flexible inorganic synthetic sponges, aerogels, membranes, papers, among others, with applications in sustainability, energy and catalysis, and especially in the biomedical field.; Hydroxyapatite-based materials have been widely used in countless applications, such as bone regeneration, catalysis, air and water purification or protein separation.

JTD Keywords: Bone, Calcium-phosphate, Doped hydroxyapatite, Fire-resistant, Hydrothermal synthesis, Metal-ions, Nanoparticles, Nanowires, Particle-size, Porous nanocomposite

Quiñonero G, Gallo J, Carrasco A, Samitier J, Villasante A, (2023). Engineering Biomimetic Nanoparticles through Extracellular Vesicle Coating in Cancer Tissue Models Nanomaterials 13, 3097

Using nanoparticles (NPs) in drug delivery has exhibited promising therapeutic potential in various cancer types. Nevertheless, several challenges must be addressed, including the formation of the protein corona, reduced targeting efficiency and specificity, potential immune responses, and issues related to NP penetration and distribution within 3-dimensional tissues. To tackle these challenges, we have successfully integrated iron oxide nanoparticles into neuroblastoma-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) using the parental labeling method. We first developed a tissue-engineered (TE) neuroblastoma model, confirming the viability and proliferation of neuroblastoma cells for at least 12 days, supporting its utility for EV isolation. Importantly, EVs from long-term cultures exhibited no differences compared to short-term cultures. Concurrently, we designed Rhodamine (Rh) and Polyacrylic acid (PAA)-functionalized magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4@PAA-Rh) with high crystallinity, purity, and superparamagnetic properties (average size: 9.2 ± 2.5 nm). We then investigated the internalization of Fe3O4@PAA-Rh nanoparticles within neuroblastoma cells within the TE model. Maximum accumulation was observed overnight while ensuring robust cell viability. However, nanoparticle internalization was low. Taking advantage of the enhanced glucose metabolism exhibited by cancer cells, glucose (Glc)-functionalized nanoparticles (Fe3O4@PAA-Rh-Glc) were synthesized, showing superior cell uptake within the 3D model without inducing toxicity. These glucose-modified nanoparticles were selected for parental labeling of the TE models, showing effective NP encapsulation into EVs. Our research introduces innovative approaches to advance NP delivery, by partially addressing the challenges associated with 3D systems, optimizing internalization, and enhancing NP stability and specificity through EV-based carriers. Also, our findings hold the promise of more precise and effective cancer therapies while minimizing potential side effects.

JTD Keywords: Biomimetic models, Extracellular vesicles, Iron oxide nanoparticles, Neuroblastoma, Precision medicine

Porro GM, Lorandi I, Liu X, Kataoka K, Battaglia G, Gonzalez-Carter D, (2023). Identifying molecular tags selectively retained on the surface of brain endothelial cells to generate artificial targets for therapy delivery Fluids And Barriers Of The Cns 20, 88

Current strategies to identify ligands for brain delivery select candidates based on preferential binding to cell-membrane components (CMC) on brain endothelial cells (EC). However, such strategies generate ligands with inherent brain specificity limitations, as the CMC (e.g., the transferrin receptor TfR1) are also significantly expressed on peripheral EC. Therefore, novel strategies are required to identify molecules allowing increased specificity of therapy brain delivery. Here, we demonstrate that, while individual CMC are shared between brain EC and peripheral EC, their endocytic internalization rate is markedly different. Such differential endocytic rate may be harnessed to identify molecular tags for brain targeting based on their selective retention on the surface of brain EC, thereby generating 'artificial' targets specifically on the brain vasculature. By quantifying the retention of labelled proteins on the cell membrane, we measured the general endocytic rate of primary brain EC to be less than half that of primary peripheral (liver and lung) EC. In addition, through bio-panning of phage-displayed peptide libraries, we unbiasedly probed the endocytic rate of individual CMC of liver, lung and brain endothelial cells. We identified phage-displayed peptides which bind to CMC common to all three endothelia phenotypes, but which are preferentially endocytosed into peripheral EC, resulting in selective retention on the surface of brain EC. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the synthesized free-form peptides are capable of generating artificial cell-surface targets for the intracellular delivery of model proteins into brain EC with increasing specificity over time. The developed identification paradigm, therefore, demonstrates that the lower endocytic rate of individual CMC on brain EC can be harnessed to identify peptides capable of generating 'artificial' targets for the selective delivery of proteins into the brain vasculature. In addition, our approach identifies brain-targeting peptides which would have been overlooked by conventional identification strategies, thereby increasing the repertoire of candidates to achieve specific therapy brain delivery.© 2023. The Author(s).

JTD Keywords: brain endothelium, endocytic rates, ligand identification, nanoparticles, phage-display, Barrier, Brain endothelium, Brain targeting, Endocytic rates, Ligand identification, Phage-display

Loeck M, Placci M, Muro S, (2023). Effect of acid sphingomyelinase deficiency in type A Niemann-Pick disease on the transport of therapeutic nanocarriers across the blood-brain barrier Drug Delivery And Translational Research 13, 3077-3093

ASM deficiency in Niemann-Pick disease type A results in aberrant cellular accumulation of sphingomyelin, neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration, and early death. There is no available treatment because enzyme replacement therapy cannot surmount the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Nanocarriers (NCs) targeted across the BBB via transcytosis might help; yet, whether ASM deficiency alters transcytosis remains poorly characterized. We investigated this using model NCs targeted to intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), transferrin receptor (TfR), or plasmalemma vesicle-associated protein-1 (PV1) in ASM-normal vs. ASM-deficient BBB models. Disease differentially changed the expression of all three targets, with ICAM-1 becoming the highest. Apical binding and uptake of anti-TfR NCs and anti-PV1 NCs were unaffected by disease, while anti-ICAM-1 NCs had increased apical binding and decreased uptake rate, resulting in unchanged intracellular NCs. Additionally, anti-ICAM-1 NCs underwent basolateral reuptake after transcytosis, whose rate was decreased by disease, as for apical uptake. Consequently, disease increased the effective transcytosis rate for anti-ICAM-1 NCs. Increased transcytosis was also observed for anti-PV1 NCs, while anti-TfR NCs remained unaffected. A fraction of each formulation trafficked to endothelial lysosomes. This was decreased in disease for anti-ICAM-1 NCs and anti-PV1 NCs, agreeing with opposite transcytosis changes, while it increased for anti-TfR NCs. Overall, these variations in receptor expression and NC transport resulted in anti-ICAM-1 NCs displaying the highest absolute transcytosis in the disease condition. Furthermore, these results revealed that ASM deficiency can differently alter these processes depending on the particular target, for which this type of study is key to guide the design of therapeutic NCs.© 2023. Controlled Release Society.

JTD Keywords: asm deficiency, blood-brain barrier, delivery, determines, drug, endocytosis, enzymes, icam-1, lysosomal storage disease, mechanisms, nanoparticles, natural-history, niemann-pick disease type a, pv-1, receptor-mediated transcytosis, trafficking, transferrin receptor, Asm deficiency, Blood–brain barrier, Drug nanocarriers, Icam-1, Icam-1-targeted nanocarriers, Lysosomal storage disease, Niemann-pick disease type a, Pv-1, Receptor-mediated transcytosis, Transferrin receptor

Fulgheri F, Manca ML, Fernàndez-Busquets X, Manconi M, (2023). Analysis of complementarities between nanomedicine and phytodrugs for the treatment of malarial infection Nanomedicine 18, 1681-1696

The use of nanocarriers in medicine, so-called nanomedicine, is one of the most innovative strategies for targeting drugs at the action site and increasing their activity index and effectiveness. Phytomedicine is the oldest traditional method used to treat human diseases and solve health problems. The recent literature on the treatment of malaria infections using nanodelivery systems and phytodrugs or supplements has been analyzed. For the first time, in the present review, a careful look at the considerable potential of nanomedicine in promoting phytotherapeutic efficacy was done, and its key role in addressing a translation through a significant reduction of the current burden of malaria in many parts of the world has been underlined.

JTD Keywords: antiplasmodial activity, bioavailability, chloroquine, combination therapy, discovery, drug-delivery, drug-delivery systems, nanocapsules, nanomedicine, natural molecules, pharmacokinetics, phytomedicine, plasmodium-falciparum, Artemisinin-based combination therapy, Drug-delivery systems, Nanomedicine, Natural molecules, Phytomedicine, Solid lipid nanoparticles

Cassani M, Fernandes S, Oliver-De La Cruz J, Durikova H, Vrbsky J, Patočka M, Hegrova V, Klimovic S, Pribyl J, Debellis D, Skladal P, Cavalieri F, Caruso F, Forte G, (2023). YAP Signaling Regulates the Cellular Uptake and Therapeutic Effect of Nanoparticles Advanced Science , e2302965

Interactions between living cells and nanoparticles are extensively studied to enhance the delivery of therapeutics. Nanoparticles size, shape, stiffness, and surface charge are regarded as the main features able to control the fate of cell-nanoparticle interactions. However, the clinical translation of nanotherapies has so far been limited, and there is a need to better understand the biology of cell-nanoparticle interactions. This study investigates the role of cellular mechanosensitive components in cell-nanoparticle interactions. It is demonstrated that the genetic and pharmacologic inhibition of yes-associated protein (YAP), a key component of cancer cell mechanosensing apparatus and Hippo pathway effector, improves nanoparticle internalization in triple-negative breast cancer cells regardless of nanoparticle properties or substrate characteristics. This process occurs through YAP-dependent regulation of endocytic pathways, cell mechanics, and membrane organization. Hence, the study proposes targeting YAP may sensitize triple-negative breast cancer cells to chemotherapy and increase the selectivity of nanotherapy.© 2023 The Authors. Advanced Science published by Wiley-VCH GmbH.

JTD Keywords: cancer treatment, cells, differentiation, hippo pathway, mechanics, mechanobiology, mechanotransduction, nanoparticles, progression, protein, resistance, yap-signaling, yap/taz, Bio-nano interactions, Cancer treatment, Extracellular-matrix, Mechanobiology, Nanoparticles, Yap-signaling

Resina L, Alemán C, Ferreira FC, Esteves T, (2023). Protein-imprinted polymers: How far have "plastic antibodies" come? Biotechnology Advances 68, 108220

Antibodies are highly selective and sensitive, making them the gold standard for recognition affinity tools. However, their production cost is high and their downstream processing is time-consuming. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are tailor-made by incorporating specific molecular recognition sites in their structure, thus translating into receptor-like activity mode of action. The interest in molecular imprinting technology, applied to biomacromolecules, has increased in the past decade. MIPs, produced using biomolecules as templates, commonly referred to as "plastic antibodies" or "artificial receptors", have been considered as suitable cheaper and easy to produce alternatives to antibodies. Research on MIPs, designed to recognize proteins or peptides is particularly important, with potential contributions towards biomedical applications, namely biosensors and targeted drug delivery systems. This mini review will cover recent advances on (bio)molecular imprinting technology, where proteins or peptides are targeted or mimicked for sensing and therapeutic applications. Polymerization methods are reviewed elsewhere, being out of the scope of this review. Template selection and immobilization approaches, monomers and applications will be discussed, highlighting possible drawbacks and gaps in research.Copyright © 2023 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

JTD Keywords: artificial antibodies, assay, biomimetics, biomolecules, biosensors, delivery, diagnostics, drug delivery, electrochemical detection, nanoparticles, receptors, science-and-technology, selective recognition, selective targeting, separation, templates, Artificial antibodies, Biomimetics, Biomolecules, Biosensors, Diagnostics, Drug delivery, Molecularly imprinted polymers, Nanoparticles, Selective targeting, Solid-phase synthesis

Gallo, J, Villasante, A, (2023). Recent Advances in Biomimetic Nanocarrier-Based Photothermal Therapy for Cancer Treatment International Journal Of Molecular Sciences 24, 15484

Nanomedicine presents innovative solutions for cancer treatment, including photothermal therapy (PTT). PTT centers on the design of photoactivatable nanoparticles capable of absorbing non-toxic near-infrared light, generating heat within target cells to induce cell death. The successful transition from benchside to bedside application of PTT critically depends on the core properties of nanoparticles responsible for converting light into heat and the surface properties for precise cell-specific targeting. Precisely targeting the intended cells remains a primary challenge in PTT. In recent years, a groundbreaking approach has emerged to address this challenge by functionalizing nanocarriers and enhancing cell targeting. This strategy involves the creation of biomimetic nanoparticles that combine desired biocompatibility properties with the immune evasion mechanisms of natural materials. This review comprehensively outlines various strategies for designing biomimetic photoactivatable nanocarriers for PTT, with a primary focus on its application in cancer therapy. Additionally, we shed light on the hurdles involved in translating PTT from research to clinical practice, along with an overview of current clinical applications.

JTD Keywords: biomimetic nanoparticles, cancer treatment, diagnosis, drug-delivery, erythrocyte-membrane, facile synthesis, iron-oxide nanoparticles, magnetic nanoparticles, membrane-camouflaged nanoparticles, metastatic breast-cancer, size, stem-cells, Biomimetic nanoparticles, Cancer treatment, Membrane-camouflaged nanoparticles, Photothermal therapy

Dolci M, Wang Y, Nooteboom SW, Soto Rodriguez PED, Sánchez S, Albertazzi L, Zijlstra P, (2023). Real-Time Optical Tracking of Protein Corona Formation on Single Nanoparticles in Serum Acs Nano 17, 20167-20178

The formation of a protein corona, where proteins spontaneously adhere to the surface of nanomaterials in biological environments, leads to changes in their physicochemical properties and subsequently affects their intended biomedical functionalities. Most current methods to study protein corona formation are ensemble-averaging and either require fluorescent labeling, washing steps, or are only applicable to specific types of particles. Here we introduce real-time all-optical nanoparticle analysis by scattering microscopy (RONAS) to track the formation of protein corona in full serum, at the single-particle level, without any labeling. RONAS uses optical scattering microscopy and enables real-time and in situ tracking of protein adsorption on metallic and dielectric nanoparticles with different geometries directly in blood serum. We analyzed the adsorbed protein mass, the affinity, and the kinetics of the protein adsorption at the single particle level. While there is a high degree of heterogeneity from particle to particle, the predominant factor in protein adsorption is surface chemistry rather than the underlying nanoparticle material or size. RONAS offers an in-depth understanding of the mechanisms related to protein coronas and, thus, enables the development of strategies to engineer efficient bionanomaterials.

JTD Keywords: Dielectric nanoparticles, Optical microscopy, Plasmonic nanoparticles, Protein corona, Single particles

Perxés Perich M, Palma-Florez S, Solé C, Goberna-Ferrón S, Samitier J, Gómez-Romero P, Mir M, Lagunas A, (2023). Polyoxometalate-Decorated Gold Nanoparticles Inhibit β-Amyloid Aggregation and Cross the Blood-Brain Barrier in a µphysiological Model Nanomaterials 13, 2697

Alzheimer's disease is characterized by a combination of several neuropathological hallmarks, such as extracellular aggregates of beta amyloid (Aβ). Numerous alternatives have been studied for inhibiting Aβ aggregation but, at this time, there are no effective treatments available. Here, we developed the tri-component nanohybrid system AuNPs@POM@PEG based on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) covered with polyoxometalates (POMs) and polyethylene glycol (PEG). In this work, AuNPs@POM@PEG demonstrated the inhibition of the formation of amyloid fibrils, showing a 75% decrease in Aβ aggregation in vitro. As it is a potential candidate for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, we evaluated the cytotoxicity of AuNPs@POM@PEG and its ability to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). We achieved a stable nanosystem that is non-cytotoxic below 2.5 nM to human neurovascular cells. The brain permeability of AuNPs@POM@PEG was analyzed in an in vitro microphysiological model of the BBB (BBB-on-a-chip), containing 3D human neurovascular cell co-cultures and microfluidics. The results show that AuNPs@POM@PEG was able to cross the brain endothelial barrier in the chip and demonstrated that POM does not affect the barrier integrity, giving the green light to further studies into this system as a nanotherapeutic.

JTD Keywords: beta-amyloid, blood-brain barrier organ-on-a-chip, cellular uptake, citrate, cytotoxicity, electrocatalytic reduction, gold nanoparticles, hypothesis, nanorods, polyoxometalates, size, stability, surface, Alzheimers-disease, Blood–brain barrier organ-on-a-chip, Gold nanoparticles, Nanovehicle, Polyoxometalates, Β-amyloid

García-Torres, J, Lázaro, C, Sylla, D, Lanzalaco, S, Ginebra, MP, Alemán, C, (2023). Combining 2D organic and 1D inorganic nanoblocks to develop free-standing hybrid nanomembranes for conformable biosensors Journal Of Nanostructure In Chemistry 13, 507-517

We report a simple approach to fabricate free-standing perforated 2D nanomembranes hosting well-ordered 1D metallic nanostructures to obtain hybrid materials with nanostructured surfaces for flexible electronics. Nanomembranes are formed by alternatively depositing perforated poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) layers. Copper metallic nanowires (NWs) were incorporated into the nanoperforations of the top PLA layer by electrodeposition and further coated with silver via a transmetallation reaction. The combination of 2D polymeric nanomembranes and aligned 1D metallic NWs allows merging the flexibility and conformability of the ultrathin soft polymeric nanomembranes with the good electrical properties of metals for biointegrated electronic devices. Thus, we were able to tailor the nanomembrane surface chemistry as it was corroborated by SEM, EDX, XPS, CV, EIS and contact angle. The obtained hybrid nanomembranes were flexible and conformable showing sensing capacity towards H2O2 with good linear concentration range (0.35–10 mM), sensitivity (120 µA cm?2 mM?1) and limit of detection (7 ?m). Moreover, the membranes showed good stability, reproducibility and selectivity towards H2O2.

JTD Keywords: biointegrated sensors, designs, electronics, fabrication, free-standing films, h2o2, metallic nanowires, nanoparticles, nanowires, sensor, skin, Hydrogen-peroxide, Perforated nanomembranes

Del Moral M, Loeck M, Muntimadugu E, Vives G, Pham V, Pfeifer P, Battaglia G, Muro S, (2023). Role of the Lactide:Glycolide Ratio in PLGA Nanoparticle Stability and Release under Lysosomal Conditions for Enzyme Replacement Therapy of Lysosomal Storage Disorders J Funct Biomater 14, 440

Prior studies demonstrated that encapsulation in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) enhanced the delivery of enzymes used for replacement therapy (ERT) of lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs). This study examined how the copolymer lactide:glycolide ratio impacts encapsulation, physicochemical characteristics, stability, and release under lysosomal conditions. Hyaluronidase, deficient in mucopolysaccharidosis IX, was encapsulated in NPs synthesized using 50:50, 60:40, or 75:25 lactide:glycolide copolymers. All NPs had diameters compatible with cellular transport (≤168 nm) and polydispersity indexes (≤0.16) and ζ-potentials (≤-35 mV) compatible with colloidal stability. Yet, their encapsulation efficiency varied, with 75:25 NPs and 60:40 NPs having the lowest and highest EE, respectively (15% vs. 28%). Under lysosomal conditions, the 50:50 copolymer degraded fastest (41% in 1 week), as expected, and the presence of a targeting antibody coat did not alter this result. Additionally, 60:40 NPs destabilized fastest (<1 week) because of their smaller diameter, and 75:25 NPs did not destabilize in 4 weeks. All formulations presented burst release under lysosomal conditions (56-78% of the original load within 30 min), with 50:50 and 60:40 NPs releasing an additional small fraction after week 1. This provided 4 weeks of sustained catalytic activity, sufficient to fully degrade a substrate. Altogether, the 60:40 NP formulation is preferred given its higher EE, and 50:50 NPs represent a valid alternative, while the highest stability of 75:25 NPs may impair lysosomes. These results can guide future studies aiming to translate PLGA NP-based ERT for this and other LSDs.

JTD Keywords: biodegradation, copolymer ratio, degradation, drug-delivery, emulsification, enzyme release, enzyme replacement therapy, hyaluronidase, mechanisms, microspheres, nanoparticle stability, poly(lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles, size, sphingomyelinase, transport, Central-nervous-system, Copolymer ratio, Enzyme release, Enzyme replacement therapy, Hyaluronidase, Lysosomal storage disorder, Nanoparticle stability, Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles

Blasi D, Gonzalez-Pato N, Rodriguez Rodriguez X, Diez-Zabala I, Srinivasan SY, Camarero N, Esquivias O, Roldán M, Guasch J, Laromaine A, Gorostiza P, Veciana J, Ratera I, (2023). Ratiometric Nanothermometer Based on a Radical Excimer for In Vivo Sensing Small 19, 2207806

Ratiometric fluorescent nanothermometers with near-infrared emission play an important role in in vivo sensing since they can be used as intracellular thermal sensing probes with high spatial resolution and high sensitivity, to investigate cellular functions of interest in diagnosis and therapy, where current approaches are not effective. Herein, the temperature-dependent fluorescence of organic nanoparticles is designed, synthesized, and studied based on the dual emission, generated by monomer and excimer species, of the tris(2,4,6-trichlorophenyl)methyl radical (TTM) doping organic nanoparticles (TTMd-ONPs), made of optically neutral tris(2,4,6-trichlorophenyl)methane (TTM-αH), acting as a matrix. The excimer emission intensity of TTMd-ONPs decreases with increasing temperatures whereas the monomer emission is almost independent and can be used as an internal reference. TTMd-ONPs show a great temperature sensitivity (3.4% K-1 at 328 K) and a wide temperature response at ambient conditions with excellent reversibility and high colloidal stability. In addition, TTMd-ONPs are not cytotoxic and their ratiometric outputs are unaffected by changes in the environment. Individual TTMd-ONPs are able to sense temperature changes at the nano-microscale. In vivo thermometry experiments in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) worms show that TTMd-ONPs can locally monitor internal body temperature changes with spatio-temporal resolution and high sensitivity, offering multiple applications in the biological nanothermometry field.© 2023 The Authors. Small published by Wiley-VCH GmbH.

JTD Keywords: dual emission, elegans, excimer emission, fluorescence, in vivo sensing, luminescence, nanoparticles, organic radical nanoparticles, ratiometric nanothermometers, sensors, thermometry, trityl radicals, Caenorhabditis elegans, Excimer emission, In vivo sensing, Intracellular ph, Luminescence, Organic radical nanoparticles, Ratiometric nanothermometers, Trityl radicals

Das P, Pujals S, Ali LMA, Gary-Bobo M, Albertazzi L, Durand JO, (2023). Super-resolution imaging of antibody-conjugated biodegradable periodic mesoporous organosilica nanoparticles for targeted chemotherapy of prostate cancer Nanoscale 15, 12008-12024

Biodegradable periodic mesoporous organosilica nanoparticles (nanoPMOs) are widely used as responsive drug delivery platforms for targeted chemotherapy of cancer. However, the evaluation of their properties such as surface functionality and biodegradability is still challenging, which has a significant impact on the efficiency of chemotherapy. In this study, we have applied direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM), a single-molecule super-resolution microscopy technique, to quantify the degradation of nanoPMOs triggered by glutathione and the multivalency of antibody-conjugated nanoPMOs. Subsequently, the effect of these properties on cancer cell targeting, drug loading and release capability, and anticancer activity is also studied. Due to the higher spatial resolution at the nanoscale, dSTORM imaging is able to reveal the structural properties (i.e., size and shape) of fluorescent and biodegradable nanoPMOs. The quantification of nanoPMOs' biodegradation using dSTORM imaging demonstrates their excellent structure-dependent degradation behavior at a higher glutathione concentration. The surface functionality of anti-M6PR antibody-conjugated nanoPMOs as quantified by dSTORM imaging plays a key role in prostate cancer cell labeling: oriented antibody is more effective than random ones, while high multivalency is also effective. The higher biodegradability and cancer cell-targeting properties of nanorods conjugated with oriented antibody (EAB4H) effectively deliver the anticancer drug doxorubicin to cancer cells, exhibiting potent anticancer effects.

JTD Keywords: drug-delivery, nanocapsules, nanomaterials, nanomedicine, release, Silica nanoparticles

Nong J, Glassman PM, Myerson JW, Zuluaga-Ramirez V, Rodriguez-Garcia A, Mukalel A, Omo-Lamai S, Walsh LR, Zamora ME, Gong X, Wang Z, Bhamidipati K, Kiseleva RY, Villa CH, Greineder CF, Kasner SE, Weissman D, Mitchell MJ, Muro S, Persidsky Y, Brenner JS, Muzykantov VR, Marcos-Contreras OA, (2023). Targeted Nanocarriers Co-Opting Pulmonary Intravascular Leukocytes for Drug Delivery to the Injured Brain Acs Nano 17, 13121-13136

Ex vivo-loaded white blood cells (WBC) can transfer cargo to pathological foci in the central nervous system (CNS). Here we tested affinity ligand driven in vivo loading of WBC in order to bypass the need for ex vivo WBC manipulation. We used a mouse model of acute brain inflammation caused by local injection of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). We intravenously injected nanoparticles targeted to intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (anti-ICAM/NP). We found that (A) at 2 h, >20% of anti-ICAM/NP were localized to the lungs; (B) of the anti-ICAM/NP in the lungs >90% were associated with leukocytes; (C) at 6 and 22 h, anti-ICAM/NP pulmonary uptake decreased; (D) anti-ICAM/NP uptake in brain increased up to 5-fold in this time interval, concomitantly with migration of WBCs into the injured brain. Intravital microscopy confirmed transport of anti-ICAM/NP beyond the blood-brain barrier and flow cytometry demonstrated complete association of NP with WBC in the brain (98%). Dexamethasone-loaded anti-ICAM/liposomes abrogated brain edema in this model and promoted anti-inflammatory M2 polarization of macrophages in the brain. In vivo targeted loading of WBC in the intravascular pool may provide advantages of coopting WBC predisposed to natural rapid mobilization from the lungs to the brain, connected directly via conduit vessels.

JTD Keywords: drug delivery, icam-1, inflammation, lung injury, messenger-rna, migration, model, nanoparticles, neutrophils, pharmacokinetics, t-cells, white bloodcells, Adhesion molecules, Brain, Drug delivery, Inflammation, Nanoparticles, Pharmacokinetics, White blood cells

Magdanz, V, Klingner, A, Abelmann, L, Khalil, ISM, (2023). IRONSperm swimming by rigid-body rotation versus transverse bending waves influenced by cell membrane charge Journal Of Micro-Bio Robotics 18, 49-60

Cell membrane potential affects the electrostatic self-assembly of magnetizable nanoparticles around the flagellum of sperm cells, leading to the formation of biohybrid microrobots (i.e., IRONSperm) with various bending stiffness. Here we explain the influence of bull sperm cell membrane potential on the formation of two types of IRONSperm samples that are produced by electrostatic self-assembly. The first type is a proximal-coated soft body with nanoparticles concentrated on the head to maintain high flexibility of the flagellum and create a passively propagating transverse bending wave under the influence of an external rotating magnetic field. The second type is a rigid-body with nanoparticles approximately uniformly distributed along the length to provide arbitrary geometry that maintains a constant chiral shape and propel by rotation about its long axis. We present a magneto-elastohydrodynamic model to predict the swimming speed at low Reynolds number for rigid IRONSperm with arbitrary shapes, and show that decreasing the bending stiffness allows the model to capture the behavior of its soft counterpart. While the response of a rigid chiral IRONSperm is distinguished by a greater swimming speed with a smooth decay with frequency, the benefit of a soft flagellum in certain scenarios would present a much smaller range of frequencies for wireless actuation.

JTD Keywords: Biohybrid, Magnetic, Microrobots, Nanoparticles, Propulsion, Sperm cells

Mingot J, Benejam N, Víllora G, Alemán C, Armelin E, Lanzalaco S, (2023). Multimodal Biomedical Implant with Plasmonic and Simulated Body Temperature Responses Macromolecular Bioscience 23, e2300118

This work presents a novel nanoparticle-based thermosensor implant able to reveal the precise temperature variations along the polymer filaments, as it contracts and expands due to changes in the macroscale local temperature. The multimodal device is able to trace the position and the temperature of a polypropylene mesh, employed in abdominal hernia repair, by combining plasmon resonance and Raman spectroscopy with hydrogel responsive system. The novelty relies on the attachment of the biocompatible nanoparticles, based on gold stabilized by a chitosan-shell, already charged with the Raman reporter (RaR) molecules, to the robust prosthesis, without the need of chemical linkers. The SERS enhanced effect observed is potentiated by the presence of a quite thick layer of the copolymer (poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-co-poly(acrylamide)) hydrogel. At temperatures above the LCST of PNIPAAm-co-PAAm, the water molecules are expulsed and the hydrogel layer contracts, leaving the RaR molecules more accessible to the Raman source. In vitro studies with fibroblast cells reveal that the functionalized surgical mesh is biocompatible and no toxic substances are leached in the medium. The mesh sensor opens new frontiers to semi-invasive diagnosis and infection prevention in hernia repair by using SERS spectroscopy. It also offers new possibilities to the functionalization of other healthcare products.© 2023 Wiley-VCH GmbH.

JTD Keywords: adhesion, blends, chitosan, gold nanoparticles, poly(n-isopropylacrylamide), polypropylene mesh, polypropylene meshes, repair, scattering, silver, surgical implants, thermosensitive hydrogels, toxicity, Chitosan, Gold nanoparticles, Polypropylene meshes, Surgical implants, Thermosensitive hydrogels

Moreno D, Buxadera-Palomero J, Ginebra MP, Manero JM, Martin-Gómez H, Mas-Moruno C, Rodríguez D, (2023). Comparison of the Antibacterial Effect of Silver Nanoparticles and a Multifunctional Antimicrobial Peptide on Titanium Surface International Journal Of Molecular Sciences 24, 9739

Titanium implantation success may be compromised by Staphylococcus aureus surface colonization and posterior infection. To avoid this issue, different strategies have been investigated to promote an antibacterial character to titanium. In this work, two antibacterial agents (silver nanoparticles and a multifunctional antimicrobial peptide) were used to coat titanium surfaces. The modulation of the nanoparticle (≈32.1 ± 9.4 nm) density on titanium could be optimized, and a sequential functionalization with both agents was achieved through a two-step functionalization method by means of surface silanization. The antibacterial character of the coating agents was assessed individually as well as combined. The results have shown that a reduction in bacteria after 4 h of incubation can be achieved on all the coated surfaces. After 24 h of incubation, however, the individual antimicrobial peptide coating was more effective than the silver nanoparticles or their combination against Staphylococcus aureus. All tested coatings were non-cytotoxic for eukaryotic cells.

JTD Keywords: antimicrobial peptide, biomaterials, bone, coatings, performance, ph, resistance, silanization, silver nanoparticles, staphylococcus aureus, Antimicrobial peptide, Reduces bacterial adhesion, Silanization, Silver nanoparticles, Staphylococcus aureus, Titanium functionalization

Placci, M, Giannotti, MI, Muro, S, (2023). Polymer-based drug delivery systems under investigation for enzyme replacement and other therapies of lysosomal storage disorders Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews 197, 114683

Lysosomes play a central role in cellular homeostasis and alterations in this compartment associate with many diseases. The most studied example is that of lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs), a group of 60 + maladies due to genetic mutations affecting lysosomal components, mostly enzymes. This leads to aberrant intracellular storage of macromolecules, altering normal cell function and causing multiorgan syndromes, often fatal within the first years of life. Several treatment modalities are available for a dozen LSDs, mostly consisting of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) strategies. Yet, poor biodistribution to main targets such as the central nervous system, musculoskeletal tissue, and others, as well as generation of blocking antibodies and adverse effects hinder effective LSD treatment. Drug delivery systems are being studied to surmount these obstacles, including polymeric constructs and nanoparticles that consti-tute the focus of this article. We provide an overview of the formulations being tested, the diseases they aim to treat, and the results observed from respective in vitro and in vivo studies. We also discuss the advantages and disadvantages of these strategies, the remaining gaps of knowledge regarding their per-formance, and important items to consider for their clinical translation. Overall, polymeric nanocon-structs hold considerable promise to advance treatment for LSDs.(c) 2023 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

JTD Keywords: cellular and animal models, enzyme replacement therapy, lysosomal storage disorders, nanoemulsions, nanoparticles, Beta-glucuronidase deficiency, Blood-brain-barrier, Cellular and animal models, Central-nervous-system, Enzyme replacement therapy, Feline gm1 gangliosidosis, Human acid sphingomyelinase, Human alpha-galactosidase, Lysosomal storage disorders, Mucopolysaccharidosis type-ii, Nanoemulsions, Nanoparticles, Neuronal ceroid-lipofuscinosis, Niemann-pick-disease, Pluripotent stem-cells, Polymer-based drug delivery systems

De Matteis, V, Griego, A, Scarpa, E, Cascione, M, Singh, J, Rizzello, L, (2023). Size Effect of Silver Nanoparticles Derived from Olive Mill Wastewater in THP-1 Cell Lines Applied Sciences-Basel 13, 6033

The constant demand of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) for different applications requires a new selection of solvents and reagents for their synthesis, to make them less toxic to living organisms and the environment. Among the alternative technologies that can be used to exclude the use of toxic products, green chemistry is based on the employment of biomolecules derived from plants or microorganisms to achieve NPs. Therefore, with the aim of applying the principles of circular economy, the waste deriving from the production of olive oil represents a useful source of polyphenols to be used as reduction agents to obtain AgNPs. In our work, we employed the Olive Mill Wastewater (OMWW), the so-called vegetation water typical of the Mediterranean geographical area, to achieve two sizes of AgNPs, i.e., 50 nm and 30 nm. These NPs were tested on the human monocytic cell line (THP-1) using two concentrations (3 µM and 5 µM) to understand their ability to trigger or not the inflammatory response. This was undertaken following IL-6, IL-8, IL-5 and TNF-α secretion and the NF-kB translocation. We concluded that the AgNPs did not induce strong activation of these pathways, especially when the cells were treated with higher dimensional NPs. Consequently, the application of these NPs in vivo for therapeutic purpose could be significant.

JTD Keywords: agricultural waste, immune response, physicochemical properties, Green synthesis, Silver nanoparticles

Garcia, L, Palma-Florez, S, Espinosa, V, Rokni, FS, Lagunas, A, Mir, M, García-Celma, MJ, Samitier, J, Rodríguez-Abreu, C, Grijalvo, S, (2023). Ferulic acid-loaded polymeric nanoparticles prepared from nano-emulsion templates facilitate internalisation across the blood?brain barrier in model membranes Nanoscale 15, 7929-7944

Ferulic acid-loaded PLGA NPs were synthesised via low-energy emulsification methods utilising nano-emulsion templating including permeabilisation efficiency assessed using an in vitro organ-on-a-chip system that simulates the blood-brain barrier.

JTD Keywords: alzheimers-disease, curcumin, energy, nanocarriers, nanoemulsions, plga nanoparticles, polyreactions, release, transport, Drug-delivery-systems

Fraire JC, Guix M, Hortelao AC, Ruiz-González N, Bakenecker AC, Ramezani P, Hinnekens C, Sauvage F, De Smedt SC, Braeckmans K, Sánchez S, (2023). Light-Triggered Mechanical Disruption of Extracellular Barriers by Swarms of Enzyme-Powered Nanomotors for Enhanced Delivery Acs Nano 17, 7180-7193

Targeted drug delivery depends on the ability of nanocarriers to reach the target site, which requires the penetration of different biological barriers. Penetration is usually low and slow because of passive diffusion and steric hindrance. Nanomotors (NMs) have been suggested as the next generation of nanocarriers in drug delivery due to their autonomous motion and associated mixing hydrodynamics, especially when acting collectively as a swarm. Here, we explore the concept of enzyme-powered NMs designed as such that they can exert disruptive mechanical forces upon laser irradiation. The urease-powered motion and swarm behavior improve translational movement compared to passive diffusion of state-of-the-art nanocarriers, while optically triggered vapor nanobubbles can destroy biological barriers and reduce steric hindrance. We show that these motors, named Swarm 1, collectively displace through a microchannel blocked with type 1 collagen protein fibers (barrier model), accumulate onto the fibers, and disrupt them completely upon laser irradiation. We evaluate the disruption of the microenvironment induced by these NMs (Swarm 1) by quantifying the efficiency by which a second type of fluorescent NMs (Swarm 2) can move through the cleared microchannel and be taken up by HeLa cells at the other side of the channel. Experiments showed that the delivery efficiency of Swarm 2 NMs in a clean path was increased 12-fold in the presence of urea as fuel compared to when no fuel was added. When the path was blocked with the collagen fibers, delivery efficiency dropped considerably and only depicted a 10-fold enhancement after pretreatment of the collagen-filled channel with Swarm 1 NMs and laser irradiation. The synergistic effect of active motion (chemically propelled) and mechanical disruption (light-triggered nanobubbles) of a biological barrier represents a clear advantage for the improvement of therapies which currently fail due to inadequate passage of drug delivery carriers through biological barriers.

JTD Keywords: drug delivery, enzyme catalysis, nanoparticles, swarming, vapor nanobubbles, Drug delivery, Enzyme catalysis, Nanomotors, Nanoparticles, Swarming, Vapor nanobubbles

Garcia-Torres, J, Colombi, S, Mahamed, I, Sylla, D, Arnau, M, Sans, J, Ginebra, MP, Aleman, C, (2023). Nanocomposite Hydrogels with Temperature Response for Capacitive Energy Storage Acs Applied Energy Materials 6, 4487-4495

Palma-Florez S, López-Canosa A, Moralez-Zavala F, Castaño O, Kogan MJ, Samitier J, Lagunas A, Mir M, (2023). BBB-on-a-chip with integrated micro-TEER for permeability evaluation of multi-functionalized gold nanorods against Alzheimer's disease Journal Of Nanobiotechnology 21, 115

The lack of predictive models that mimic the blood-brain barrier (BBB) hinders the development of effective drugs for neurodegenerative diseases. Animal models behave differently from humans, are expensive and have ethical constraints. Organ-on-a-chip (OoC) platforms offer several advantages to resembling physiological and pathological conditions in a versatile, reproducible, and animal-free manner. In addition, OoC give us the possibility to incorporate sensors to determine cell culture features such as trans-endothelial electrical resistance (TEER). Here, we developed a BBB-on-a-chip (BBB-oC) platform with a TEER measurement system in close distance to the barrier used for the first time for the evaluation of the permeability performance of targeted gold nanorods for theranostics of Alzheimer's disease. GNR-PEG-Ang2/D1 is a therapeutic nanosystem previously developed by us consisting of gold nanorods (GNR) functionalized with polyethylene glycol (PEG), angiopep-2 peptide (Ang2) to overcome the BBB and the D1 peptide as beta amyloid fibrillation inhibitor, finally obtaining GNR-PEG-Ang2/D1 which showed to be useful for disaggregation of the amyloid in in vitro and in vivo models. In this work, we evaluated its cytotoxicity, permeability, and some indications of its impact on the brain endothelium by employing an animal-free device based on neurovascular human cells.In this work, we fabricated a BBB-oC with human astrocytes, pericytes and endothelial cells and a TEER measuring system (TEER-BBB-oC) integrated at a micrometric distance of the endothelial barrier. The characterization displayed a neurovascular network and the expression of tight junctions in the endothelium. We produced GNR-PEG-Ang2/D1 and determined its non-cytotoxic range (0.05-0.4 nM) for plated cells included in the BBB-oC and confirmed its harmless effect at the highest concentration (0.4 nM) in the microfluidic device. The permeability assays revealed that GNR-PEG-Ang2/D1 cross the BBB and this entry is facilitated by Ang2 peptide. Parallel to the permeability analysis of GNR-PEG-Ang2/D1, an interesting behavior of the TJs expression was observed after its administration probably related to the ligands on the nanoparticle surface.BBB-oC with a novel TEER integrated setup which allow a correct read-out and cell imaging monitoring was proven as a functional and throughput platform to evaluate the brain permeability performance of nanotherapeutics in a physiological environment with human cells, putting forward a viable alternative to animal experimentation.© 2023. The Author(s).

JTD Keywords: alzheimer disease (ad), cell-culture, cytotoxicity, endothelial-cells, gold nanoparticles, microfluidic platform, model, organ-on-a-chip (ooc), peptide, tight junction, trans-endothelial electrical resistance (teer), transport, Alzheimer disease (ad), Blood-brain barrier (bbb), Blood-brain-barrier, Blood–brain barrier (bbb), Gold nanoparticles, Organ-on-a-chip (ooc), Trans-endothelial electrical resistance (teer)

Xiong R, Sauvage F, Fraire JC, Huang C, De Smedt SC, Braeckmans K, (2023). Photothermal Nanomaterial-Mediated Photoporation Accounts Of Chemical Research 56, 631-643

ConspectusDelivering biological effector molecules in cultured cells is of fundamental importance to any study or application in which the modulation of gene expression is required. Examples range from generating engineered cell lines for studying gene function to the engineering of cells for cell-based therapies such as CAR-T cells and gene-corrected stem cells for regenerative medicine. It remains a great challenge, however, to deliver biological effector molecules across the cell membrane with minimal adverse effects on cell viability and functionality. While viral vectors have been frequently used to introduce foreign nucleic acids into cells, their use is associated with safety concerns such as immunogenicity, high manufacturing cost, and limited cargo capacity.For photoporation, depending on the laser energy, membrane permeabilization happens either by local heating or by laser-induced water vapor nanobubbles (VNB). In our first study on this topic, we demonstrated that the physical force exerted by suddenly formed VNB leads to more efficient intracellular delivery as compared to mere heating. Next, we explored the use of different photothermal nanomaterials, finding that graphene quantum dots display enhanced thermal stability compared to the more traditionally used gold nanoparticles, hence providing the possibility to increase the delivery efficiency by repeated laser activation. To enable its use for the production of engineered therapeutic cells, it would be better if contact with cells with nondegradable nanoparticles is avoided as it poses toxicity and regulatory concerns. Therefore, we recently demonstrated that photoporation can be performed with biodegradable polydopamine nanoparticles as well. Alternatively, we demonstrated that nanoparticle contact can be avoided by embedding the photothermal nanoparticles in a substrate made from biocompatible electrospun nanofibers. With this variety of photoporation approaches, over the years we demonstrated the successful delivery of a broad variety of biologics (mRNA, siRNA, Cas9 ribonucleoproteins, nanobodies, etc.) in many different cell types, including hard-to-transfect cells such as T cells, embryonic stem cells, neurons, and macrophages.In this Account, we will first start with a brief introduction of the general concept and a historical development of photoporation. In the next two sections, we will extensively discuss the various types of photothermal nanomaterials which have been used for photoporation. We discriminate two types of photothermal nanomaterials: single nanostructures and composite nanostructures. The first one includes examples such as gold nanoparticles, graphene quantum dots, and polydopamine nanoparticles. The second type includes polymeric films and nanofibers containing photothermal nanoparticles as well as composite nanoscale biolistic nanostructures. A thorough discussion will be given for each type of photothermal nanomaterial, from its synthesis and characterization to its application in photoporation, with its advantages and disadvantages. In the final section, we will provide an overall discussion and elaborate on future perspectives.

JTD Keywords: cells, delivery, macromolecules, nanoparticles, In-vitro

Resina, L, El Hauadi, K, Sans, J, Esteves, T, Ferreira, FC, Perez-Madrigal, MM, Aleman, C, (2023). Electroresponsive and pH-Sensitive Hydrogel as Carrier for Controlled Chloramphenicol Release Biomacromolecules 24, 1432-1444

Multiresponsive hydrogels, which are smart soft materials that respond to more than one external stimulus, have emerged as powerful tools for biomedical applications, such as drug delivery. Within this context and with the aim of eliminating the systematic administration of antibiotics, special attention is being paid to the development of systems for controlled delivery of antibiotic for topical treatment of bacterial infections. In this work, an electro-chemo responsive hydrogel able to release chloramphenicol (CAM), a broad spectrum antibiotic also used for anticancer therapy, is proposed. This has been prepared by grafting poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) to sodium alginate (Alg) and in situ encapsulation of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) nanoparticles loaded with CAM (PEDOT/CAM NPs), which were obtained by emulsion polymerization. Although the response to electrical stimuli of PEDOT was the main control for the release of CAM from PEDOT/CAM NPs, the release by passive diffusion had a relatively important contribution. Conversely, the passive release of antibiotic from the whole engineered hydrogel system, Alg-g-PAA/PEDOT/CAM, was negligible, whereas significant release was achieved under electrostimulation in an acid environment. Bacterial tests and assays with cancer cells demonstrated that the biological activity of CAM remained after release by electrical stimulation. Notably, the successful dual-response of the developed hydrogel to electrical stimuli and pH changes evidence the great prospect of this smart material in the biomedical field, as a tool to fight against bacterial infections and to provide local cancer treatment.

JTD Keywords: drug-delivery, films, growth, nanoparticles, Cancer stem-cells

Blanco-Fernandez, G, Blanco-Fernandez, B, Fernandez-Ferreiro, A, Otero-Espinar, FJ, (2023). Lipidic lyotropic liquid crystals: Insights on biomedical applications Advances In Colloid And Interface Science 313, 102867

Liquid crystals (LCs) possess unique physicochemical properties, translatable into a wide range of applications. To date, lipidic lyotropic LCs (LLCs) have been extensively explored in drug delivery and imaging owing to the capability to encapsulate and release payloads with different characteristics. The current landscape of lipidic LLCs in biomedical applications is provided in this review. Initially, the main properties, types, methods of fabrication and applications of LCs are showcased. Then, a comprehensive discussion of the main biomedical applications of lipidic LLCs accordingly to the application (drug and biomacromolecule delivery, tissue engi-neering and molecular imaging) and route of administration is examined. Further discussion of the main limi-tations and perspectives of lipidic LLCs in biomedical applications are also provided.Statement of significance: Liquid crystals (LCs) are those systems between a solid and liquid state that possess unique morphological and physicochemical properties, translatable into a wide range of biomedical applications. A short description of the properties of LCs, their types and manufacturing procedures is given to serve as a background to the topic. Then, the latest and most innovative research in the field of biomedicine is examined, specifically the areas of drug and biomacromolecule delivery, tissue engineering and molecular imaging. Finally, prospects of LCs in biomedicine are discussed to show future trends and perspectives that might be utilized. This article is an ampliation, improvement and actualization of our previous short forum article "Bringing lipidic lyotropic liquid crystal technology into biomedicine" published in TIPS.

JTD Keywords: drug delivery, glycerol monooleate, imaging, liquid crystals, Cancer, Drug delivery, Drug-delivery-systems, Glycerol monooleate, Imaging, In-situ, Liquid crystals, Nano-carriers, Nanoparticles, Phase-behavior, Stratum-corneum, Sustained-release, Tissue engineering, Vegetable-oil, Water

De Lama-Odría, MD, del Valle, LJ, Puiggalí, J, (2023). Lanthanides-Substituted Hydroxyapatite for Biomedical Applications International Journal Of Molecular Sciences 24, 3446

Lately, there has been an increasing demand for materials that could improve tissue regenerative therapies and provide antimicrobial effects. Similarly, there is a growing need to develop or modify biomaterials for the diagnosis and treatment of different pathologies. In this scenario, hydroxyapatite (HAp) appears as a bioceramic with extended functionalities. Nevertheless, there are certain disadvantages related to the mechanical properties and lack of antimicrobial capacity. To circumvent them, the doping of HAp with a variety of cationic ions is emerging as a good alterative due to the different biological roles of each ion. Among many elements, lanthanides are understudied despite their great potential in the biomedical field. For this reason, the present review focuses on the biological benefits of lanthanides and how their incorporation into HAp can alter its morphology and physical properties. A comprehensive section of the applications of lanthanides-substituted HAp nanoparticles (HAp NPs) is presented to unveil the potential biomedical uses of these systems. Finally, the need to study the tolerable and non-toxic percentages of substitution with these elements is highlighted.

JTD Keywords: biolabeling, biomedicine, biosensors, bone regeneration, calcium, cancer treatment, cationic ions, cell imaging, cerium, doped hap, hydroxyapatite, implants, in-vitro bioactivity, lanthanides-substitutions, lanthanidessubstitutions, nanoparticles, radiation synovectomy, sm-153 particulate hydroxyapatite, structural-characterization, theragnostics, theranostic nanoplatforms, Europium-doped hydroxyapatite, Hydroxyapatite, Theragnostics

Dols-Perez A, Fornaguera C, Feiner-Gracia N, Grijalvo S, Solans C, Gomila G, (2023). Effect of surface functionalization and loading on the mechanical properties of soft polymeric nanoparticles prepared by nano-emulsion templating Colloids And Surfaces B-Biointerfaces 222, 113019

Drug and gene delivery systems based on polymeric nanoparticles offer a greater efficacy and a reduced toxicity compared to traditional formulations. Recent studies have evidenced that their internalization, biodistribution and efficacy can be affected, among other factors, by their mechanical properties. Here, we analyze by means of Atomic Force Microscopy force spectroscopy how composition, surface functionalization and loading affect the mechanics of nanoparticles. For this purpose, nanoparticles made of Poly(lactic-co-glycolic) (PLGA) and Ethyl cellulose (EC) with different functionalizations and loading were prepared by nano-emulsion templating using the Phase Inversion Composition method (PIC) to form the nano-emulsions. A multiparametric nanomechanical study involving the determination of the Young's modulus, maximum deformation and breakthrough force was carried out. The obtained results showed that composition, surface functionalization and loading affect the nanomechanical properties in a different way, thus requiring, in general, to consider the overall mechanical properties after the addition of a functionalization or loading. A graphical representation method has been proposed enabling to easily identify mechanically equivalent formulations, which is expected to be useful in the development of soft polymeric nanoparticles for pre-clinical and clinical use.Copyright © 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

JTD Keywords: afm, atomic-force microscopy, cell, delivery-systems, drug-delivery, emulsification approach, internalization, mechanics of nanoparticles, nanomedicine, nanoparticle functionalization, particles, protein corona, size, young?s modulus, Afm, Loaded plga nanoparticles, Mechanics of nanoparticles, Nanomedicine, Nanoparticle functionalization, Polymeric nanoparticles, Young’s modulus

Hamelmann NM, Paats JD, Avalos-Padilla Y, Lantero E, Spanos L, Siden-Kiamos I, Fernàndez-Busquets X, Paulusse JMJ, (2023). Single-Chain Polymer Nanoparticles Targeting the Ookinete Stage of Malaria Parasites Acs Infectious Diseases 9, 56-64

Malaria is an infectious disease transmitted by mosquitos, whose control is hampered by drug resistance evolution in the causing agent, protist parasites of the genus Plasmodium, as well as by the resistance of the mosquito to insecticides. New approaches to fight this disease are, therefore, needed. Research into targeted drug delivery is expanding as this strategy increases treatment efficacies. Alternatively, targeting the parasite in humans, here we use single-chain polymer nanoparticles (SCNPs) to target the parasite at the ookinete stage, which is one of the stages in the mosquito. This nanocarrier system provides uniquely sized and monodispersed particles of 5-20 nm, via thiol-Michael addition. The conjugation of succinic anhydride to the SCNP surface provides negative surface charges that have been shown to increase the targeting ability of SCNPs to Plasmodium berghei ookinetes. The biodistribution of SCNPs in mosquitos was studied, showing the presence of SCNPs in mosquito midguts. The presented results demonstrate the potential of anionic SCNPs for the targeting of malaria parasites in mosquitos and may lead to progress in the fight against malaria.

JTD Keywords: antimalarial, atovaquone, carriers, delivery, drug-conjugate, heparin, intramolecular crosslinking, plasmodium berghei, therapy, thiol-michael addition, transmission, Atovaquone, Drug-conjugate, Intramolecular crosslinking, Plasmodium berghei, Plasmodium-falciparum, Single chain polymer nanoparticles, Thiol-michael addition

Acosta-Gutierrez, S, Buckley, J, Battaglia, G, (2023). The Role of Host Cell Glycans on Virus Infectivity: The SARS-CoV-2 Case Advanced Science 10, 2201853

Glycans are ubiquitously expressed sugars, coating the cell and protein surfaces. They are found on many proteins as either short and branched chains or long chains sticking out from special membrane proteins, known as proteoglycans. This sugar cushion, the glycocalyx, modulates specific interactions and protects the cell. Here it is shown that both the expression of proteoglycans and the glycans expressed on the surface of both the host and virus proteins have a critical role in modulating viral attachment to the cell. A mathematical model using SARS-Cov-2 as an archetypical virus to study the glycan role during infection is proposed. It is shown that this occurs via a tug-of-war of forces. On one side, the multivalent molecular recognition that viral proteins have toward specific host glycans and receptors. On the other side, the glycan steric repulsion that a virus must overcome to approach such specific receptors. By balancing both interactions, viral tropism can be predicted. In other words, the authors can map out the cells susceptible to virus infection in terms of receptors and proteoglycans compositions.© 2022 The Authors. Advanced Science published by Wiley-VCH GmbH.

JTD Keywords: binding, entry, glycocalyx, mechanisms, multiplexing, multivalency, nanoparticles, recognition, super-selectivity, viral infectivity, Functional receptor, Glycans, Glycocalyx, Multiplexing, Multivalency, Nanoparticles, Super-selectivity, Viral infectivity

Webster-Wood, VA, Guix, M, Xu, NW, Behkam, B, Sato, H, Sarkar, D, Sanchez, S, Shimizu, M, Parker, KK, (2023). Biohybrid robots: recent progress, challenges, and perspectives Bioinspiration & Biomimetics 18, 15001

The past ten years have seen the rapid expansion of the field of biohybrid robotics. By combining engineered, synthetic components with living biological materials, new robotics solutions have been developed that harness the adaptability of living muscles, the sensitivity of living sensory cells, and even the computational abilities of living neurons. Biohybrid robotics has taken the popular and scientific media by storm with advances in the field, moving biohybrid robotics out of science fiction and into real science and engineering. So how did we get here, and where should the field of biohybrid robotics go next? In this perspective, we first provide the historical context of crucial subareas of biohybrid robotics by reviewing the past 10+ years of advances in microorganism-bots and sperm-bots, cyborgs, and tissue-based robots. We then present critical challenges facing the field and provide our perspectives on the vital future steps toward creating autonomous living machines.

JTD Keywords: biohybrid, cyborg, Biohybrid, Cell, Cyborg, Delivery, Fabrication, Flight, Insect, Living machines, Muscle activities, Muscular thin-films, Nanoparticles, Stimulation, Tissue

Munoz-Galan, H, Molina, BG, Bertran, O, Perez-Madrigal, MM, Aleman, C, (2022). Combining rapid and sustained insulin release from conducting hydrogels for glycemic control br European Polymer Journal 181, 111670

Innovative insulin delivery systems contemplate combining multi-pharmacokinetic profiles for glycemic control. Two device configurations have been designed for the controlled release of insulin using the same chemical compounds. The first insulin delivery system, which displays a rapid release response that, in addition, is enhanced on a short time scale by electrical stimulation, consists on an insulin layer sandwiched between a conducting poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) film and a poly-gamma-glutamic acid (gamma-PGA) hydrogel. The second system is constituted by gamma-PGA hydrogel loaded with insulin and PEDOT nanoparticles by in situ gelation. In this case, the insulin release, which only starts after the degradation of the hydrogel over time (i.e. on a long time scale), is slow and sustained. The combination of an on-demand and fast release profile with a sustained and slow profile, which act on different time scales, would result in a very efficient regulation of diabetes therapy in comparison to current systems, allowing to control both fast and sustained glycemic events. Considering that the two systems developed in this work are based on the same chemical components, future work will be focused on the combination of the two kinetic profiles by re-engineering a unique insulin release device using gamma-PGA, PEDOT and insulin.

JTD Keywords: Conducting polymer, Constant, Diabetes, Diabetes-mellitus, Drug-delivery, Electrodes, Electrostimulation, Glucose-responsive hydrogels, Hydrogel, Molecular dynamics, Molecular-dynamics, Nanogels, Nanoparticles, Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), Risk

De Matteis, V, Rizzello, L, Cascione, M, Pellegrino, P, Singh, J, Manno, D, Rinaldi, R, (2022). Sustainable Synthesis of FITC Chitosan-Capped Gold Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications Clean Technologies 4, 942-953

The quest for novel nanoscale materials for different applications necessitates that they are easy to obtain and have excellent physical properties and low toxicity. Moreover, considering the ongoing environmental impact of noxious chemical waste products, it is important to adopt eco-friendly approaches for nanoparticle synthesis. In this work, a natural polymer (medium molecular weight chitosan) derived from chitin was employed as a reducing agent to obtain gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with a chitosan shell (AuNPs@CS) by a microwave oven. The chitosan is economically viable and cost-competitive in the market showing also nontoxic behavior in the environment and living organisms. The synthesized AuNPs@CS-FITC NPs were fully characterized by spectroscopic and microscopic characterization techniques. The size distribution of NPs was about 15 nm, which is a suitable dimension to use in biomedical applications due to their high tissue penetration, great circulation in blood, and optimal clearance as well as low toxicity. The prepared polymer-capped NPs were further functionalized with a fluorescent molecule, i.e., Fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate (FITC), to perform imaging in the cell. The results highlighted the goodness of the synthesis procedure, as well as the high internalization rate that resulted in an optimal fluorescence intensity. Thus, this work presents a good sustainable/green approach-mediated polymer nanocomposite for various applications in the field of diagnostic imaging.

JTD Keywords: Agent, Biomedical, Fluorescent, Gold nanoparticles, Green synthesis, Nanomaterials, Silver nanoparticles

Pujals, S, Albertazzi, L, Fuentes, E, Gabaldon, Y, Collado, M, Dhiman, S, (2022). Supramolecular Stability of Benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamide Supramolecular Polymers in Biological Media: Beyond the Stability-Responsiveness Trade-off Journal Of The American Chemical Society 144, 21196-21205

Supramolecular assemblies have been gaining attention in recent years in the field of drug delivery because of their unique formulation possibilities and adaptive behavior. Their non-covalent nature allows for their self-assembly formulation and responsiveness to stimuli, an appealing feature to trigger a therapeutic action with spatiotemporal control. However, facing in vivo conditions is very challenging for non-covalent structures. Dilution and proteins in blood can have a direct impact on self assembly, destabilizing the supramolecules and leading to a premature and uncontrolled cargo release. To rationalize this behavior, we designed three monomers exhibiting distinct hydrophobic cores that self-assemble into photo-responsive fibers. We estimated their stability-responsiveness tradeoff in vitro, finding two well-separated regimes. These are low-robustness regime, in which the system equilibrates quickly and responds readily to stimuli, and high-robustness regime, in which the system equilibrates slowly and is quite insensitive to stimuli. We probed the performance of both regimes in a complex environment using Fo''rster resonance energy transfer (FRET). Interestingly, the stability-responsiveness trade-off defines perfectly the extent of disassembly caused by dilution but not the one caused by protein interaction. This identifies a disconnection between intrinsic supramolecular robustness and supramolecular stability in the biological environment, strongly influenced by the disassembly pathway upon protein interaction. These findings shed light on the key features to address for supramolecular stability in the biological environment.

JTD Keywords: Azobenzene, Critical micellization, Fret, Guide, Nanoparticles, Ph, Photoisomerization, Polymerization, Shape, Water

Bonany M, Pérez-Berná AJ, Dučić T, Pereiro E, Martin-Gómez H, Mas-Moruno C, van Rijt S, Zhao Z, Espanol M, Ginebra MP, (2022). Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles-cell interaction: New approaches to disclose the fate of membrane-bound and internalised nanoparticles Biomaterials Advances 142, 213148

Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles are popular tools in bone regeneration, but they have also been used for gene delivery and as anticancer drugs. Understanding their mechanism of action, particularly for the latter application, is crucial to predict their toxicity. To this end, we aimed to elucidate the importance of nanoparticle membrane interactions in the cytotoxicity of MG-63 cells using two different types of nanoparticles. In addition, conventional techniques for studying nanoparticle internalisation were evaluated and compared with newer and less exploited approaches. Hydroxyapatite and magnesium-doped hydroxyapatite nanoparticles were used as suspensions or compacted as specular discs. Comparison between cells seeded on the discs and those supplemented with the nanoparticles allowed direct interaction of the cell membrane with the material to be ruled out as the main mechanism of toxicity. In addition, standard techniques such as flow cytometry were inconclusive when used to assess nanoparticles toxicity. Interestingly, the use of intracellular calcium fluorescent probes revealed the presence of a high number of calcium-rich vesicles after nanoparticle supplementation in cell culture. These structures could not be detected by transmission electron microscopy due to their liquid content. However, by using cryo-soft X-ray imaging, which was used to visualise the cellular ultrastructure without further treatment other than vitrification and to quantify the linear absorption coefficient of each organelle, it was possible to identify them as multivesicular bodies, potentially acting as calcium stores. In the study, an advanced state of degradation of the hydroxyapatite and magnesium-doped hydroxyapatite nanoparticles within MG-63 cells was observed. Overall, we demonstrate that the combination of fluorescent calcium probes together with cryo-SXT is an excellent approach to investigate intracellular calcium, especially when found in its soluble form.Copyright © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

JTD Keywords: adsorption, cryo-soft x-ray tomography, cytotoxicity, expression, flow cytometry, internalisation, intracellular calcium, magnesium, nano, nanomaterials, nanoparticles, proliferation, protein corona, ultrastructure, Calcium-phosphate nanoparticles, Cryo-soft x-ray tomography, Flow cytometry, Hydroxyapatite, Internalisation, Intracellular calcium, Nanoparticles

Pala, M, El Khannaji, H, Garay-Sarmiento, M, Ronda, JC, Cadiz, V, Galia, M, Percec, V, Rodriguez-Emmenegger, C, Lligadas, G, (2022). A green solvent-to-polymer upgrading approach to water-soluble LCST poly(N-substituted lactamide acrylate)s Green Chemistry 24, 8314-8323

We report a green solvent-to-polymer upgrading transformation of chemicals of the lactic acid portfolio into water-soluble lower critical solution temperature (LCST)-type acrylic polymers. Aqueous Cu(0)-mediated living radical polymerization (SET-LRP) was utilized for the rapid synthesis of N-substituted lactamide-type homo and random acrylic copolymers under mild conditions. A particularly unique aspect of this work is that the water-soluble monomers and the SET-LRP initiator used to produce the corresponding polymers were synthesized from biorenewable and non-toxic solvents, namely natural ethyl lactate and BASF's Agnique (R) AMD 3L (N,N-dimethyl lactamide, DML). The pre-disproportionation of Cu(I) Br in the presence of tris[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]amine (Me6TREN) in water generated nascent Cu(0) and Cu(II) complexes that facilitated the fast polymerization of N-tetrahydrofurfuryl lactamide and N,N-dimethyl lactamide acrylate monomers (THFLA and DMLA, respectively) up to near-quantitative conversion with excellent control over molecular weight (5000 < M-n < 83 000) and dispersity (1.05 < D < 1.16). Interestingly, poly(THFLA) showed a degree of polymerization and concentration dependent LCST behavior, which can be fine-tuned (T-cp = 12-62 degrees C) through random copolymerization with the more hydrophilic DMLA monomer. Finally, covalent cross-linking of these polymers resulted in a new family of thermo-responsive hydrogels with excellent biocompatibility and tunable swelling and LCST transition. These illustrate the versatility of these neoteric green polymers in the preparation of smart and biocompatible soft materials.

JTD Keywords: Acid, Ethyl lactate, Living radical polymerization, Monomers, Pnipam, Reductive amination, Ruthenium nanoparticles, Set-lrp, Single, Thermoresponsive polymers

De Lama-Odría, MD, Del Valle, LJ, Puiggalí, J, (2022). Hydroxyapatite Biobased Materials for Treatment and Diagnosis of Cancer International Journal Of Molecular Sciences 23, 11352

Great advances in cancer treatment have been undertaken in the last years as a consequence of the development of new antitumoral drugs able to target cancer cells with decreasing side effects and a better understanding of the behavior of neoplastic cells during invasion and metastasis. Specifically, drug delivery systems (DDS) based on the use of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HAp NPs) are gaining attention and merit a comprehensive review focused on their potential applications. These are derived from the intrinsic properties of HAp (e.g., biocompatibility and biodegradability), together with the easy functionalization and easy control of porosity, crystallinity and morphology of HAp NPs. The capacity to tailor the properties of DLS based on HAp NPs has well-recognized advantages for the control of both drug loading and release. Furthermore, the functionalization of NPs allows a targeted uptake in tumoral cells while their rapid elimination by the reticuloendothelial system (RES) can be avoided. Advances in HAp NPs involve not only their use as drug nanocarriers but also their employment as nanosystems for magnetic hyperthermia therapy, gene delivery systems, adjuvants for cancer immunotherapy and nanoparticles for cell imaging.

JTD Keywords: antitumoral, cancer, cell imaging, controlled-release, drug-carrier, efficient drug-delivery, fatty-acid-metabolism, fe3o4 nanoparticles, gene delivery, hydroxyapatite, hyperthermia, immunotherapy, in-vitro, magnetic hydroxyapatite, nano-hydroxyapatite, protein adsorption, tumor-growth, Calcium-phosphate nanoparticles, Cancer, Immunotherapy

Hodásová, L, Morena, AG, Tzanov, T, Fargas, G, Llanes, L, Alemán, C, Armelin, E, (2022). 3D-Printed Polymer-Infiltrated Ceramic Network with Antibacterial Biobased Silver Nanoparticles Acs Applied Bio Materials 5, 4803-4813

This work aimed at the antimicrobial functionalization of 3D-printed polymer-infiltrated biomimetic ceramic networks (PICN). The antimicrobial properties of the polymer-ceramic composites were achieved by coating them with human- and environmentally safe silver nanoparticles trapped in a phenolated lignin matrix (Ag@PL NPs). Lignin was enzymatically phenolated and used as a biobased reducing agent to obtain stable Ag@PL NPs, which were then formulated in a silane (γ-MPS) solution and deposited to the PICN surface. The presence of the NPs and their proper attachment to the surface were analyzed with spectroscopic methods (FTIR and Raman) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Homogeneous distribution of 13.4 ± 3.2 nm NPs was observed in the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. The functionalized samples were tested against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria, validating their antimicrobial efficiency in 24 h. The bacterial reduction of S. aureus was 90% in comparison with the pristine surface of PICN. To confirm that the Ag-functionalized PICN scaffold is a safe material to be used in the biomedical field, its biocompatibility was demonstrated with human fibroblast (BJ-5ta) and keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells, which was higher than 80% in both cell lines.

JTD Keywords: accuracy, antibacterial activity, disease, facile, laccase enzyme, lignin, polyacrylates, polymer-infiltrated ceramic network, silver nanoparticles, zirconia, Mechanical-properties, Mechanical-properties,zirconia,lignin,accuracy,disease,facil, Polymer-infiltrated ceramic network, Polymer-infiltrated ceramic network,polyacrylates,lignin,laccase enzyme,silver nanoparticles,antibacterial activit, Silver nanoparticles

Wang, YY, Rodriguez, PEDS, Woythe, L, Sánchez, S, Samitier, J, Zijlstra, P, Albertazzi, L, (2022). Multicolor Super-Resolution Microscopy of Protein Corona on Single Nanoparticles Acs Applied Materials & Interfaces 14, 37345-37355

Nanoparticles represent a promising class of material for nanomedicine and molecular biosensing. The formation of a protein corona due to nonspecific particle-protein interactions is a determining factor for the biological fate of nanoparticles in vivo and strongly impacts the performance of nanoparticles when used as biosensors. Nonspecific interactions are usually highly heterogeneous, yet little is known about the heterogeneity of the protein corona that may lead to inter- and intraparticle differences in composition and protein distribution. Here, we present a super-resolution microscopic approach to study the protein corona on single silica nanoparticles and subsequent cellular interactions using multicolor stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy. We demonstrate that STED resolves structural features of protein corona on single particles including the distribution on the particle surface and the degree of protein internalization in porous particles. Using multicolor measurements of multiple labeled protein species, we determine the composition of the protein corona at the single-particle level. We quantify particle-to-particle differences in the composition and find that the composition is considerably influenced by the particle geometry. In a subsequent cellular uptake measurement, we demonstrate multicolor STED of protein corona on single particles internalized by cells. Our study shows that STED microscopy opens the window toward mechanistic understanding of protein coronas and aids in the rational design of nanoparticles as nanomedicines and biosensors.

JTD Keywords: insights, multicolor microscopy, nanoparticles, protein corona, quantification, size, sted microscopy, Fluorescence, Quantification, Sted microscopy

Battaglini M, Feiner N, Tapeinos C, De Pasquale D, Pucci C, Marino A, Bartolucci M, Petretto A, Albertazzi L, Ciofani G, (2022). Combining confocal microscopy, dSTORM, and mass spectroscopy to unveil the evolution of the protein corona associated with nanostructured lipid carriers during blood-brain barrier crossing Nanoscale 14, 13292-13307

Upon coming into contact with the biological environment, nanostructures are immediately covered by biomolecules, particularly by proteins forming the so-called "protein corona" (PC). The phenomenon of PC formation has gained great attention in recent years due to its implication in the use of nanostructures in biomedicine. In fact, it has been shown that the formation of the PC can impact the performance of nanostructures by reducing their stability, causing aggregation, increasing their toxicity, and providing unexpected and undesired nanostructure-cell interactions. In this work, we decided to study for the first time the formation and the evolution of PC on the surface of nanostructured lipid carriers loaded with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, before and after the crossing of an in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Combining confocal microscopy, direct STochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy (dSTORM), and proteomic analysis, we were able to carry out a complete analysis of the PC formation and evolution. In particular, we highlighted that PC formation is a fast process, being formed around particles even after just 1 min of exposure to fetal bovine serum. Moreover, PC formed around particles is extremely heterogeneous: while some particles have no associated PC at all, others are completely covered by proteins. Lastly, the interaction with an in vitro BBB model strongly affects the PC composition: in particular, a large amount of the proteins forming the initial PC is lost after the BBB passage and they are partially replaced by new proteins derived from both the brain endothelial cells and the cell culture medium. Altogether, the obtained data could potentially provide new insights into the design and fabrication of lipid nanostructures for the treatment of central nervous system disorders.

JTD Keywords: design, impact, Nanoparticles

Roki, N, Solomon, M, Bowers, J, Getts, L, Getts, RC, Muro, S, (2022). Tuning Design Parameters of ICAM-1-Targeted 3DNA Nanocarriers to Optimize Pulmonary Targeting Depending on Drug Type Pharmaceutics 14, 1496

3DNA holds promise as a carrier for drugs that can be intercalated into its core or linked to surface arms. Coupling 3DNA to an antibody targeting intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) results in high lung-specific biodistributions in vivo. While the role of individual parameters on ICAM-1 targeting has been studied for other nanocarriers, it has never been examined for 3DNA or in a manner capable of revealing the hierarchic interplay among said parameters. In this study, we used 2-layer vs. 4-layer anti-ICAM 3DNA and radiotracing to examine biodistribution in mice. We found that, below saturating conditions and within the ranges tested, the density of targeting antibodies on 3DNA is the most relevant parameter driving lung targeting over liver clearance, compared to the number of antibodies per carrier, total antibody dose, 3DNA dose, 3DNA size, or the administered concentration, which influenced the dose in organs but not the lung specific-over-liver clearance ratio. Data predicts that lung-specific delivery of intercalating (core loaded) drugs can be tuned using this biodistribution pattern, while that of arm-linked (surface loaded) drugs requires a careful parametric balance because increasing anti-ICAM density reduces the number of 3DNA arms available for drug loading.

JTD Keywords: 3dna nanocarrier, acid sphingomyelinase, antibody, carrier design parameters, carriers, dna nanostructures, doxorubicin, drug type, icam-1, inflammation, lung targeting, multiparametric hierarchy, nanoparticles, size, 3dna nanocarrier, Intracellular delivery, Multiparametric hierarchy

Morla-Folch, J, Vargas-Nadal, G, Fuentes, E, Illa-Tuset, S, Koeber, M, Sissa, C, Pujals, S, Painelli, A, Veciana, J, Faraudo, J, Belfield, KD, Albertazzi, L, Ventosa, N, (2022). Ultrabright Foster Resonance Energy Transfer Nanovesicles: The Role of Dye Diffusion Chemistry Of Materials 34, 8517-8527

The development of contrast agents based on fluorescent nanoparticles with high brightness and stability is a key factor to improve the resolution and signal-to-noise ratio of current fluorescence imaging techniques. However, the design of bright fluorescent nanoparticles remains challenging due to fluorescence self-quenching at high concentrations. Developing bright nanoparticles showing FRET emission adds several advantages to the system, including an amplified Stokes shift, the possibility of ratiometric measurements, and of verifying the nanoparticle stability. Herein, we have developed Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based nanovesicles at different dye loadings and investigated them through complementary experimental techniques, including conventional fluorescence spectroscopy and super-resolution microscopy supported by molecular dynamics calculations. We show that the optical properties can be modulated by dye loading at the nanoscopic level due to the dye's molecular diffusion in fluid-like membranes. This work shows the first proof of a FRET pair dye's dynamism in liquid-like membranes, resulting in optimized nanoprobes that are 120-fold brighter than QDot 605 and exhibit >80% FRET efficiency with vesicle-to-vesicle variations that are mostly below 10%.

JTD Keywords: Bright, Dendrimers, Fluorescent, In-vivo, Nanoparticles, Nir, Particles

Riera, Roger, Tauler, Jana, Feiner Gracia, Natàlia, Borrós, Salvador, Fornaguera, Cristina, Albertazzi, Lorenzo, (2022). Complex pBAE Nanoparticle Cell Trafficking: Tracking Both Position and Composition Using Super Resolution Microscopy Chemmedchem 17,

Nanomedicine emerged some decades ago with the hope to be the solution for most unmet medical needs. However, tracking materials at nanoscale is challenging to their reduced size, below the resolution limit of most conventional techniques. In this context, we propose the use of direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM) to study time stability and cell trafficking after transfection of oligopeptide end-modified poly(?-aminoester) (OM-pBAE) nanoparticles. We selected different combinations of cationic end oligopeptides (arginine - R; histidine - H; and lysine - K) among polymer libraries, since the oligopeptide combination demonstrated to be useful for different applications, such as vaccination and gene silencing. We demonstrate that their time evolution as well as their cell uptake and trafficking are dependent on the oligopeptide. This study opens the pave to broad mechanistic studies at nanoscale that could enable a rational selection of specific pBAE nanoparticles composition after determining their stability and cell trafficking.© 2022 The Authors. ChemMedChem published by Wiley-VCH GmbH.

JTD Keywords: cancer nanomedicine, cell trafficking, delivery, direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dstorm), nanoparticle stability, poly(beta-aminoester) nanoparticles, Direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dstorm), Poly(?-aminoester) nanoparticles, Poly(beta-amino ester)s, Poly(β-aminoester) nanoparticles

Sans, J, Arnau, M, Turon, P, Alemán, C, (2022). Permanently polarized hydroxyapatite, an outstanding catalytic material for carbon and nitrogen fixation Materials Horizons 9, 1566-1576

Permanently polarized hydroxyapatite is a new material with electrical enhanced properties. This review discusses the advances in this material in terms of structure, properties and catalytic activity of green processes.

JTD Keywords: ammonia, bone, copper hydroxyapatite, electrophotosynthesis, nanoparticles, oxidation, phase-transition, reduction, Amino-acids

Lanzalaco, S, Gil, P, Mingot, J, Agueda, A, Alemán, C, Armelin, E, (2022). Dual-Responsive Polypropylene Meshes Actuating as Thermal and SERS Sensors Acs Biomaterials Science & Engineering 8, 3329-3340

Polypropylene (PP) surgical meshes, with different knitted architectures, were chemically functionalized with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and 4-mercaptothiazole (4-MB) to transform their fibers into a surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detectable plastic material. The application of a thin layer of poly[N-isopropylacrylamide-co-N,N'-methylene bis(acrylamide)] (PNIPAAm-co-MBA) graft copolymer, covalently polymerized to the mesh-gold substrate, caused the conversion of the inert plastic into a thermoresponsive material, resulting in the first PP implantable mesh with both SERS and temperature stimulus responses. AuNPs were homogeneously distributed over the PP yarns, offering a clear SERS recognition together with higher PNIPAAm lower critical solution temperature (LCST ∼ 37 °C) than without the metallic particles (LCST ∼ 32 °C). An infrared thermographic camera was used to observe the polymer-hydrogel folding-unfolding process and to identify the new value of the LCST, connected with the heat generation by plasmonic-resonance gold NPs. The development of SERS PP prosthesis will be relevant for the bioimaging and biomarker detection of the implant by using the plasmonic effect and Raman vibrational spectroscopy for minimally invasive interventions (such as laparoscopy), to prevent patient inflammatory processes. Furthermore, Raman sources have been proved to not damage the cells, like happens with near-infrared irradiation, representing another advantage of moving to SERS approaches. The findings reported here offer unprecedented application possibilities in the biomedical field by extrapolating the material functionalization to other nonabsorbable polymer made devices (e.g., surgical sutures, grapes, wound dressings, among others).

JTD Keywords: gold nanoparticles, poly(n-isopropylacrylamide), polymers, polypropylene, raman-spectroscopy, reduction, resonance, sers spectroscopy, size, surface functionalization, Gold nanoparticles, Polypropylene, Surface functionalization

Arque, X, Torres, MDT, Patino, T, Boaro, A, Sanchez, S, de la Fuente-Nunez, C, (2022). Autonomous Treatment of Bacterial Infections in Vivo Using Antimicrobial Micro- and Nanomotors Acs Nano 16, 7547-7558

The increasing resistance of bacteria to existing antibiotics constitutes a major public health threat globally. Most current antibiotic treatments are hindered by poor delivery to the infection site, leading to undesired off-target effects and drug resistance development and spread. Here, we describe micro- and nanomotors that effectively and autonomously deliver antibiotic payloads to the target area. The active motion and antimicrobial activity of the silica-based robots are driven by catalysis of the enzyme urease and antimicrobial peptides, respectively. These antimicrobial motors show micromolar bactericidal activity in vitro against different Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacterial strains and act by rapidly depolarizing their membrane. Finally, they demonstrated autonomous anti-infective efficacy in vivo in a clinically relevant abscess infection mouse model. In summary, our motors combine navigation, catalytic conversion, and bactericidal capacity to deliver antimicrobial payloads to specific infection sites. This technology represents a much-needed tool to direct therapeutics to their target to help combat drug-resistant infections.

JTD Keywords: antibiotic-resistance, antimicrobial peptides, autonomous treatment, bacterial infection, delivery, ll-37, nanomotors, nanoparticles, peptide, self-propulsion, tissue, vitro, wasp venom, Antibiotic-resistance, Antimicrobial peptides, Autonomous treatment, Bacterial infection, Delivery, Ll-37, Mesoporous silica nanoparticles, Nanomotors, Nanoparticles, Peptide, Self-propulsion, Tissue, Vitro, Wasp venom

Muntimadugu, E, Silva-Abreu, M, Vives, G, Loeck, M, Pham, V, Del Moral, M, Solomon, M, Muro, S, (2022). Comparison between Nanoparticle Encapsulation and Surface Loading for Lysosomal Enzyme Replacement Therapy International Journal Of Molecular Sciences 23, 4034

Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) enhance the delivery of therapeutic enzymes for replacement therapy of lysosomal storage disorders. Previous studies examined NPs encapsulating or coated with enzymes, but these formulations have never been compared. We examined this using hyaluronidase (HAse), deficient in mucopolysaccharidosis IX, and acid sphingomyelinase (ASM), deficient in types A–B Niemann–Pick disease. Initial screening of size, PDI, ζ potential, and loading resulted in the selection of the Lactel II co-polymer vs. Lactel I or Resomer, and Pluronic F68 surfactant vs. PVA or DMAB. Enzyme input and addition of carrier protein were evaluated, rendering NPs having, e.g., 181 nm diameter, 0.15 PDI, −36 mV ζ potential, and 538 HAse molecules encapsulated per NP. Similar NPs were coated with enzyme, which reduced loading (e.g., 292 HAse molecules/NP). NPs were coated with targeting antibodies (> 122 molecules/NP), lyophilized for storage without alterations, and acceptably stable at physiological conditions. NPs were internalized, trafficked to lysosomes, released active enzyme at lysosomal conditions, and targeted both peripheral organs and the brain after i.v. administration in mice. While both formulations enhanced enzyme delivery compared to free enzyme, encapsulating NPs surpassed coated counterparts (18.4- vs. 4.3-fold enhancement in cells and 6.2- vs. 3-fold enhancement in brains), providing guidance for future applications.

JTD Keywords: active enzymes, encapsulation, enhanced delivery, enzyme therapeutics, formulation parameters, icam-1 targeting, icam-1-targeted nanocarriers, in vivo biodistribution, in-vitro, lysosomal delivery, model, oral delivery, plga nanoparticles, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles, protein therapeutics, surface loading, Acid sphingomyelinase, Enzyme therapeutics, Surface loading

Blanco-Fernandez, B, Alcoholado, C, Villatoro, A, Antunez-Rodriguez, C, Visse, R, Becerra, J, Engel, E, Perez-Amodio, S, (2022). NANOPLATFORMS DELIVERING MSC SECRETOME FOR SKIN WOUND HEALING (Abstract 715) Tissue Engineering Part a 28, S200-S200

INTRODUCTION: Mesenchymal stem cells ( MSCs) regulatecell processes by secreting growth factors, cytokines, chemokines,hormones and extracellular vesicles, known as secretome. This se-cretome has successfully exhibited therapeutic properties.1 Althoughsecretome can be directly administered in the target site, its fastclearance is still challenging. Therefore, new efforts have been madeto develop delivery platforms,1 that sustain secretome release andincrease its retention time.The aim of this work is to encapsulate secretome into nano-particles (NPs) for achieving a sustained release and to evaluate theirpotential in wound healing.EXPERIMENTAL METHODS: Secretome was obtained byculturing human umbilical cord MSCs under hypoxic conditions.Protein content was determined using a protein array. Secretome wasencapsulated in poly(lactic-co-glycolic) (PLGA) NPs by doubleemulsification. NPs size and zeta potential were measured using aZetasizer. The loading content and release was evaluated using amicroBCA. The secretome integrity was also assessed. NPs cellularcytocompatibility was studied using human dermal fibroblasts andkeratinocytes.RESULTS: The most expressed bioactive molecules detected inthe secretome were TIMP-2, TIMP-1, IL-6, IL-8, RANTES. NPsencapsulate between 7.2-13.5mg/mg NPs, having sizes of 300-400 nm and zeta potentials below -20 mV. NPs were biocompatibleand sustained the release for 7 days.DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: The secretome composi-tion evidenced its potential in wound healing. Secretome was suc-cessfully encapsulated in the NPs, showing a sustained release. Ourresults indicate that these nanoplatforms are promising woundhealing agents.

JTD Keywords: Msc, Nanoparticle, Secretome

Valles, M, Pujals, S, Albertazzi, L, Sánchez, S, (2022). Enzyme Purification Improves the Enzyme Loading, Self-Propulsion, and Endurance Performance of Micromotors Acs Nano 16, 5615-5626

Enzyme-powered micro- and nanomotors make use of biocatalysis to self-propel in aqueous media and hold immense promise for active and targeted drug delivery. Most (if not all) of these micro- and nanomotors described to date are fabricated using a commercially available enzyme, despite claims that some commercial preparations may not have a sufficiently high degree of purity for downstream applications. In this study, the purity of a commercial urease, an enzyme frequently used to power the motion of micro- and nanomotors, was evaluated and found to be impure. After separating the hexameric urease from the protein impurities by size-exclusion chromatography, the hexameric urease was subsequently characterized and used to functionalize hollow silica microcapsules. Micromotors loaded with purified urease were found to be 2.5 times more motile than the same micromotors loaded with unpurified urease, reaching average speeds of 5.5 ?m/s. After comparing a number of parameters, such as enzyme distribution, protein loading, and motor reusability, between micromotors functionalized with purified vs unpurified urease, it was concluded that protein purification was essential for optimal performance of the enzyme-powered micromotor.

JTD Keywords: canavalin, catalysis, delivery, dls, enhanced diffusion, enzyme, lipase immobilization, micromotors, self-propulsion, super-resolution microscopy, urease, Mesoporous silica nanoparticles, Micromotors, Super-resolution microscopy

Woythe, L, Madhikar, P, Feiner-Gracia, N, Storm, C, Albertazzi, L, (2022). A Single-Molecule View at Nanoparticle Targeting Selectivity: Correlating Ligand Functionality and Cell Receptor Density Acs Nano 16, 3785-3796

Antibody-functionalized nanoparticles (NPs) are commonly used to increase the targeting selectivity toward cells of interest. At a molecular level, the number of functional antibodies on the NP surface and the density of receptors on the target cell determine the targeting interaction. To rationally develop selective NPs, the single-molecule quantitation of both parameters is highly desirable. However, techniques able to count molecules with a nanometric resolution are scarce. Here, we developed a labeling approach to quantify the number of functional cetuximabs conjugated to NPs and the expression of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs) in breast cancer cells using direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM). The single-molecule resolution of dSTORM allows quantifying molecules at the nanoscale, giving a detailed insight into the distributions of individual NP ligands and cell receptors. Additionally, we predicted the fraction of accessible antibody-conjugated NPs using a geometrical model, showing that the total number exceeds the accessible number of antibodies. Finally, we correlated the NP functionality, cell receptor density, and NP uptake to identify the highest cell uptake selectivity regimes. We conclude that single-molecule functionality mapping using dSTORM provides a molecular understanding of NP targeting, aiding the rational design of selective nanomedicines.

JTD Keywords: active targeting, active targeting dstorm, antibodies, dstorm, heterogeneity, multivalency, nanomedicine, nanoparticle functionality, size, super-resolution microscopy, surface, Active targeting, Antibodies, Cell membranes, Cell receptors, Cytology, Direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy, Dstorm, Heterogeneity, Ligands, Medical nanotechnology, Molecules, Nanomedicine, Nanoparticle functionality, Nanoparticle targeting, Nanoparticles, Optical reconstruction, Single molecule, Stochastic systems, Stochastics, Super-resolution microscopy, Superresolution microscopy

Dhiman, S, Andrian, T, Gonzalez, BS, Tholen, MME, Wang, YY, Albertazzi, L, (2022). Can super-resolution microscopy become a standard characterization technique for materials chemistry? Chemical Science 13, 2152-2166

The characterization of newly synthesized materials is a cornerstone of all chemistry and nanotechnology laboratories. For this purpose, a wide array of analytical techniques have been standardized and are used routinely by laboratories across the globe. With these methods we can understand the structure, dynamics and function of novel molecular architectures and their relations with the desired performance, guiding the development of the next generation of materials. Moreover, one of the challenges in materials chemistry is the lack of reproducibility due to improper publishing of the sample preparation protocol. In this context, the recent adoption of the reporting standard MIRIBEL (Minimum Information Reporting in Bio–Nano Experimental Literature) for material characterization and details of experimental protocols aims to provide complete, reproducible and reliable sample preparation for the scientific community. Thus, MIRIBEL should be immediately adopted in publications by scientific journals to overcome this challenge. Besides current standard spectroscopy and microscopy techniques, there is a constant development of novel technologies that aim to help chemists unveil the structure of complex materials. Among them super-resolution microscopy (SRM), an optical technique that bypasses the diffraction limit of light, has facilitated the study of synthetic materials with multicolor ability and minimal invasiveness at nanometric resolution. Although still in its infancy, the potential of SRM to unveil the structure, dynamics and function of complex synthetic architectures has been highlighted in pioneering reports during the last few years. Currently, SRM is a sophisticated technique with many challenges in sample preparation, data analysis, environmental control and automation, and moreover the instrumentation is still expensive. Therefore, SRM is currently limited to expert users and is not implemented in characterization routines. This perspective discusses the potential of SRM to transition from a niche technique to a standard routine method for material characterization. We propose a roadmap for the necessary developments required for this purpose based on a collaborative effort from scientists and engineers across disciplines.

JTD Keywords: blinking, fluorophore, intramolecular spirocyclization, localization, nanoparticles, resolution limit, reveals, single-molecule fluorescence, stimulated-emission, Characterization techniques, Diffraction, Distributed computer systems, Environmental management, Information reporting, Material chemistry, Materials characterization, Minimum information, Optical reconstruction microscopy, Optical resolving power, Sample preparation, Structure dynamics, Structure functions, Super-resolution microscopy, Synthesized materials

Bar, L, Perissinotto, F, Redondo-Morata, L, Giannotti, MI, Goole, J, Losada-Pérez, P, (2022). Interactions of hydrophilic quantum dots with defect-free and defect containing supported lipid membranes Colloids And Surfaces B-Biointerfaces 210, 112239

Quantum dots (QDs) are semiconductor nanoparticles with unique optical and electronic properties, whose interest as potential nano-theranostic platforms for imaging and sensing is increasing. The design and use of QDs requires the understanding of cell-nanoparticle interactions at a microscopic and nanoscale level. Model systems such as supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) are useful, less complex platforms mimicking physico-chemical properties of cell membranes. In this work, we investigated the effect of topographical homogeneity of SLBs bearing different surface charge in the adsorption of hydrophilic QDs. Using quartz-crystal microbalance, a label-free surface sensitive technique, we show significant differences in the interactions of QDs onto homogeneous and inhomogeneous SLBs formed following different strategies. Within short time scales, QDs adsorb onto topographically homogeneous, defect-free SLBs is driven by electrostatic interactions, leading to no layer disruption. After prolonged QD exposure, the nanomechanical stability of the SLB decreases suggesting nanoparticle insertion. In the case of inhomogeneous, defect containing layers, QDs target preferentially membrane defects, driven by a subtle interplay of electrostatic and entropic effects, inducing local vesicle rupture and QD insertion at membrane edges. © 2021

JTD Keywords: adsorption, atomic force microscopy, bilayer formation, gold nanoparticles, hydrophilic quantum dots, lipid membrane defects, model, nanomechanics, quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation, size, supported lipid bilayers, surfaces, Atomic force microscopy, Atomic-force-microscopy, Cytology, Defect-free, Electronic properties, Electrostatics, Hydrophilic quantum dot, Hydrophilic quantum dots, Hydrophilicity, Hydrophilics, Lipid bilayers, Lipid membrane defect, Lipid membrane defects, Lipid membranes, Lipids, Nanocrystals, Nanomechanics, Optical and electronic properties, Quartz, Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation, Quartz crystal microbalances, Quartz-crystal microbalance, Semiconductor nanoparticles, Semiconductor quantum dots, Supported lipid bilayers

Cascione, M, Rizzello, L, Manno, D, Serra, A, De Matteis, V, (2022). Green Silver Nanoparticles Promote Inflammation Shutdown in Human Leukemic Monocytes Materials (Basel) 15, 775

The use of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) in the biomedical field deserves a mindful analysis of the possible inflammatory response which could limit their use in the clinic. Despite the anti-cancer properties of Ag NPs having been widely demonstrated, there are still few studies concerning their involvement in the activation of specific inflammatory pathways. The inflammatory outcome depends on the synthetic route used in the NPs production, in which toxic reagents are employed. In this work, we compared two types of Ag NPs, obtained by two different chemical routes: conventional synthesis using sodium citrate and a green protocol based on leaf extracts as a source of reduction and capping agents. A careful physicochemical characterization was carried out showing spherical and stable Ag NPs with an average size between 20 nm and 35 nm for conventional and green Ag NPs respectively. Then, we evaluated their ability to induce the activation of inflammation in Human Leukemic Monocytes (THP-1) differentiated into M0 macrophages using 1 µM and 2 µM NPs concentrations (corresponded to 0.1 µg/mL and 0.2 µg/mL respectively) and two-time points (24 h and 48 h). Our results showed a clear difference in Nuclear Factor ?B (NF-?b) activation, Interleukins 6–8 (IL-6, IL-8) secretion, Tumor Necrosis Factor-? (TNF-?) and Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression exerted by the two kinds of Ag NPs. Green Ag NPs were definitely tolerated by macrophages compared to conventional Ag NPs which induced the activation of all the factors mentioned above. Subsequently, the exposure of breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) to the green Ag NPs showed that they exhibited antitumor activity like the conventional ones, but surprisingly, using the MCF-10A line (not tumoral breast cells) the green Ag NPs did not cause a significant decrease in cell viability. © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

JTD Keywords: activation, biosynthesis, gold nanoparticles, green route, inflammation response, mechanism, metal, nanotechnology, physico-chemical properties, raman-spectroscopy, resonance, silver nanoparticles, surface, Biomedical fields, Cell culture, Cell death, Chemical activation, Chemical routes, Conventional synthesis, Diseases, Green route, Inflammation response, Inflammatory response, Macrophages, Metal nanoparticles, Nf-kappa-b, Pathology, Physico-chemical properties, Physicochemical property, Property, Silver nanoparticles, Sodium compounds, Synthetic routes, Toxic reagents

Murar, M, Albertazzi, L, Pujals, S, (2022). Advanced Optical Imaging-Guided Nanotheranostics toward Personalized Cancer Drug Delivery Nanomaterials 12, 399

Nanomedicine involves the use of nanotechnology for clinical applications and holds promise to improve treatments. Recent developments offer new hope for cancer detection, prevention and treatment; however, being a heterogenous disorder, cancer calls for a more targeted treatment approach. Personalized Medicine (PM) aims to revolutionize cancer therapy by matching the most effective treatment to individual patients. Nanotheranostics comprise a combination of therapy and diagnostic imaging incorporated in a nanosystem and are developed to fulfill the promise of PM by helping in the selection of treatments, the objective monitoring of response and the planning of follow-up therapy. Although well-established imaging techniques, such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Computed Tomography (CT), Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT), are primarily used in the development of theranostics, Optical Imaging (OI) offers some advantages, such as high sensitivity, spatial and temporal resolution and less invasiveness. Additionally, it allows for multiplexing, using multi-color imaging and DNA barcoding, which further aids in the development of personalized treatments. Recent advances have also given rise to techniques permitting better penetration, opening new doors for OI-guided nanotheranostics. In this review, we describe in detail these recent advances that may be used to design and develop efficient and specific nanotheranostics for personalized cancer drug delivery. © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

JTD Keywords: 5-aminolevulinic acid, cancer, contrast agents, in-vivo, malignant gliomas, multifunctional nanoparticles, nanomedicine, optical imaging, ovarian-cancer, personalized medicine, quantum dots, silica nanoparticles, targeted probes, theranostics, Cancer, Nanomedicine, Optical imaging, Personalized medicine, Superparamagnetic iron-oxide, Theranostics

Kadkhodaie-Elyaderani, A, de Lama-Odría, MD, Rivas, M, Martínez-Rovira, I, Yousef, I, Puiggalí, J, del Valle, LJ, (2022). Medicated Scaffolds Prepared with Hydroxyapatite/Streptomycin Nanoparticles Encapsulated into Polylactide Microfibers International Journal Of Molecular Sciences 23, 1282

The preparation, characterization, and controlled release of hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanopar-ticles loaded with streptomycin (STR) was studied. These nanoparticles are highly appropriate for the treatment of bacterial infections and are also promising for the treatment of cancer cells. The analyses involved scanning electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and Z-potential measurements, as well as infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Both amorphous (ACP) and crystalline (cHAp) hydroxyapatite nanoparticles were considered since they differ in their release behavior (faster and slower for amorphous and crystalline particles, respectively). The encapsulated nanoparticles were finally incorporated into biodegradable and biocompatible polylactide (PLA) scaf-folds. The STR load was carried out following different pathways during the synthesis/precipitation of the nanoparticles (i.e., nucleation steps) and also by simple adsorption once the nanoparticles were formed. The loaded nanoparticles were biocompatible according to the study of the cytotoxicity of extracts using different cell lines. FTIR microspectroscopy was also employed to evaluate the cytotoxic effect on cancer cell lines of nanoparticles internalized by endocytosis. The results were promising when amorphous nanoparticles were employed. The nanoparticles loaded with STR increased their size and changed their superficial negative charge to positive. The nanoparticles’ crystallinity decreased, with the consequence that their crystal sizes reduced, when STR was incorporated into their structure. STR maintained its antibacterial activity, although it was reduced during the adsorption into the nanoparticles formed. The STR release was faster from the amorphous ACP nanoparticles and slower from the crystalline cHAp nanoparticles. However, in both cases, the STR release was slower when incorporated in calcium and phosphate during the synthesis. The biocompatibility of these nanoparticles was assayed by two approximations. When extracts from the nanoparticles were evaluated in cultures of cell lines, no cytotoxic damage was observed at concen-trations of less than 10 mg/mL. This demonstrated their biocompatibility. Another experiment using FTIR microspectroscopy evaluated the cytotoxic effect of nanoparticles internalized by endocytosis in cancer cells. The results demonstrated slight damage to the biomacromolecules when the cells were treated with ACP nanoparticles. Both ACP and cHAp nanoparticles were efficiently encapsulated in PLA electrospun matrices, providing functionality and bioactive properties. © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

JTD Keywords: antibiotics, antimicrobial activity, behavior, cytotoxicity, delivery, drug, drug delivery, hydroxyapatite nanoparticles, in-vitro, mechanisms, mitochondria, polylactide, release, streptomycin, Antimicrobial activity, Cancer stem-cells, Cytotoxicity, Drug delivery, Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles, Polylactide, Streptomycin

Boloix, A, Feiner-Gracia, N, Kober, M, Repetto, J, Pascarella, R, Soriano, A, Masanas, M, Segovia, N, Vargas-Nadal, G, Merlo-Mas, J, Danino, D, Abutbul-Ionita, I, Foradada, L, Roma, J, Cordoba, A, Sala, S, Toledo, JS, Gallego, S, Veciana, J, Albertazzi, L, Segura, MF, Ventosa, N, (2022). Engineering pH-Sensitive Stable Nanovesicles for Delivery of MicroRNA Therapeutics Small 18, 2101959

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding endogenous RNAs, which are attracting a growing interest as therapeutic molecules due to their central role in major diseases. However, the transformation of these biomolecules into drugs is limited due to their unstability in the bloodstream, caused by nucleases abundantly present in the blood, and poor capacity to enter cells. The conjugation of miRNAs to nanoparticles (NPs) could be an effective strategy for their clinical delivery. Herein, the engineering of non-liposomal lipid nanovesicles, named quatsomes (QS), for the delivery of miRNAs and other small RNAs into the cytosol of tumor cells, triggering a tumor-suppressive response is reported. The engineered pH-sensitive nanovesicles have controlled structure (unilamellar), size (<150 nm) and composition. These nanovesicles are colloidal stable (>24 weeks), and are prepared by a green, GMP compliant, and scalable one-step procedure, which are all unavoidable requirements for the arrival to the clinical practice of NP based miRNA therapeutics. Furthermore, QS protect miRNAs from RNAses and when injected intravenously, deliver them into liver, lung, and neuroblastoma xenografts tumors. These stable nanovesicles with tunable pH sensitiveness constitute an attractive platform for the efficient delivery of miRNAs and other small RNAs with therapeutic activity and their exploitation in the clinics.

JTD Keywords: cancer therapy, mirnas delivery, nanocarriers, nanovesicles, neuroblastoma, pediatric cancer, quatsomes, Biodistribution, Cancer therapy, Cell engineering, Cells, Cholesterol, Controlled drug delivery, Diseases, Dna, Dysregulated ph, Lipoplex, Microrna delivery, Mirnas delivery, Nanocarriers, Nanoparticles, Nanovesicle, Nanovesicles, Neuroblastoma, Neuroblastomas, Pediatric cancer, Ph sensitive, Ph sensors, Quatsome, Quatsomes, Rna, Sirna, Sirna delivery, Sirnas delivery, Small interfering rna, Small rna, Targeted drug delivery, Tumors, Vesicles

RIZZELO, L, DE MATTEIS, V, (2022). Identification of SARS-CoV-2 by Gold Nanoparticles Biocell 46, 2369-2380

The SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks highlighted the need for effective, reliable, fast, easy-to-do and cheap diagnostics procedures. We pragmatically experienced that an early positive-case detection, inevitably coupled with a mass vaccination campaign, is a milestone to control the COVID-19 pandemic. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) can indeed play a crucial role in this context, as their physicochemical, optics and electronics properties are being extensively used in photothermal therapy (PTT), radiation therapy (RT), drug delivery and diagnostic. AuNPs can be synthesized by several approaches to obtain different sizes and shapes that can be easily functionalized with many kinds of molecules such as antibodies, proteins, probes, and lipids. In addition, AuNPs showed high biocompatibility making them useful tool in medicine field. We thus reviewed here the most relevant evidence on AuNPs as effective way to detect the presence of SARS-CoV-2 antigens. We trust future diagnostic efforts must take this 'old-fashioned' nanotechnology tool into consideration for the development and commercialization of reliable and feasible detection kits.

JTD Keywords: Aggregation, Antibodies, Assay, Covid-19, Diagnosis, Enhanced raman-scattering, Gold nanoparticles, Immunoassay, Pandemic disease, Physicochemical properties, Rapid detection, Sars-cov-2, Sensors, Surface-plasmon resonance, Therapy

Andrian, T, Pujals, S, Albertazzi, L, (2021). Quantifying the effect of PEG architecture on nanoparticle ligand availability using DNA-PAINT Nanoscale Advances 3, 6876-6881

The importance of PEG architecture on nanoparticle (NP) functionality is known but still difficult to investigate, especially at a single particle level. Here, we apply DNA Point Accumulation for Imaging in Nanoscale Topography (DNA-PAINT), a super-resolution microscopy (SRM) technique, to study the surface functionality in poly(lactide-co-glycolide)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLGA-PEG) NPs with different PEG structures. We demonstrated how the length of the PEG spacer can influence the accessibility of surface chemical functionality, highlighting the importance of SRM techniques to support the rational design of functionalized NPs.

JTD Keywords: chain-length, density, plga, surface, systems, Chain-length, Density, Dna, Microscopy technique, Nanoparticles, Nanoscale topography, Paint, Peg spacers, Plga, Poly lactide-co-glycolide, Poly-lactide-co-glycolide, Polyethylene glycols, Polylactide-co-glycolide, Single-particle, Super-resolution microscopy, Superresolution microscopy, Surface, Surface chemicals, Surface functionalities, Systems

Vukomanovic, M, Cendra, MD, Baelo, A, Torrents, E, (2021). Nano-engineering stable contact-based antimicrobials: Chemistry at the interface between nano-gold and bacteria Colloids And Surfaces B-Biointerfaces 208, 112083

Contact-based antimicrobials, as antibiotic-free technologies that use non-specific interactions with bacterial cells to exert antimicrobial activity, are a prospective solution in fighting the global issue of bacterial resistance. A very simplified approach to their design considers the direct bonding of cationic guanidine-containing amino acids to the surface of nano-gold carriers. The structure enables antimicrobial activity due to a high density of cationic surface charges. This opens a set of novel questions that are important for their effective engineering, particularly regarding (i) chemistry and events that take place at the interface between NPs and cells, (ii) the direct influence of a charge (and its change) on interactions with bacterial and mammalian cells, and (iii) the stability of structures (and their antimicrobial activity) in the presence of enzymes, which are addressed in this paper. Because of the ability of amino acid-functionalized nano-gold to retain structural and functional activity, even after exposure to a range of physicochemical stimuli, they provide an excellent nanotechnological platform for designing highly effective contact-based antimicrobials and their applications.

JTD Keywords: agents, antibiotic-free technology, arginine, charged amino acids, contact-based antimicrobials, discovery, enzyme-resistant antimicrobials, functionalized gold, peptides, polymers, resistant, Antibiotic-free technology, Charged amino acids, Contact-based antimicrobials, Enzyme-resistant antimicrobials, Functionalized gold, Nanoparticles

Guasch-Girbau, A, Fernandez-Busquets, X, (2021). Review of the current landscape of the potential of nanotechnology for future malaria diagnosis, treatment, and vaccination strategies Pharmaceutics 13, 2189

Malaria eradication has for decades been on the global health agenda, but the causative agents of the disease, several species of the protist parasite Plasmodium, have evolved mechanisms to evade vaccine-induced immunity and to rapidly acquire resistance against all drugs entering clinical use. Because classical antimalarial approaches have consistently failed, new strategies must be explored. One of these is nanomedicine, the application of manipulation and fabrication technology in the range of molecular dimensions between 1 and 100 nm, to the development of new medical solutions. Here we review the current state of the art in malaria diagnosis, prevention, and therapy and how nanotechnology is already having an incipient impact in improving them. In the second half of this review, the next generation of antimalarial drugs currently in the clinical pipeline is presented, with a definition of these drugs’ target product profiles and an assessment of the potential role of nanotechnology in their development. Opinions extracted from interviews with experts in the fields of nanomedicine, clinical malaria, and the economic landscape of the disease are included to offer a wider scope of the current requirements to win the fight against malaria and of how nanoscience can contribute to achieve them. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

JTD Keywords: antibody-bearing liposomes, antimalarial drugs, combination therapies, drug-delivery strategies, malaria diagnosis, malaria prophylaxis, malaria therapy, nanocarriers, nanomedicine, nanoparticles, nanotechnology, plasmodium, plasmodium-falciparum, red-blood-cells, targeted delivery, targeted drug delivery, vitro antimalarial activity, Antimalarial drugs, Isothermal amplification lamp, Malaria diagnosis, Malaria prophylaxis, Malaria therapy, Nanocarriers, Nanomedicine, Nanotechnology, Plasmodium, Targeted drug delivery

Pérez-Rafael, S, Ivanova, K, Stefanov, I, Puiggalí, J, del Valle, LJ, Todorova, K, Dimitrov, P, Hinojosa-Caballero, D, Tzanov, T, (2021). Nanoparticle-driven self-assembling injectable hydrogels provide a multi-factorial approach for chronic wound treatment Acta Biomaterialia 134, 131-143

Chronic wounds represent a major health burden and drain on medical system. Efficient wound repair is only possible if the dressing materials target simultaneously multiple factors involved in wound chronicity, such as deleterious proteolytic and oxidative enzymes and high bacterial load. Here we develop multifunctional hydrogels for chronic wound management through self-assembling of thiolated hyaluronic acid (HA-SH) and bioactive silver-lignin nanoparticles (Ag@Lig NPs). Dynamic and reversible interactions between the polymer and Ag@Lig NPs yield hybrid nanocomposite hydrogels with shear-thinning and self-healing properties, coupled to zero-order kinetics release of antimicrobial silver in response to infection-related hyalurodinase. The hydrogels inhibit the major enzymes myeloperoxidase and matrix metalloproteinases responsible for wound chronicity in a patient's wound exudate. Furthermore, the lignin-capped AgNPs provide the hydrogel with antioxidant properties and strong antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The nanocomposite hydrogels are not toxic to human keratinocytes after 7 days of direct contact. Complete tissue remodeling and restoration of skin integrity is demonstrated in vivo in a diabetic mouse model. Hematological analysis reveals lack of wound inflammation due to bacterial infection or toxicity, confirming the potential of HA-SH/Ag@Lig NPs hydrogels for chronic wound management. Statement of significance: Multifunctional hydrogels are promising materials to promote healing of complex wounds. Herein, we report simple and versatile route to prepare biocompatible and multifunctional self-assembled hydrogels for efficient chronic wound treatment utilizing polymer-nanoparticle interactions. Hybrid silver-lignin nanoparticles (Ag@Lig NPs) played both: i) structural role, acting as crosslinking nodes in the hydrogel and endowing it with shear-thinning (ability to flow under applied shear stress) and self-healing properties, and ii) functional role, imparting strong antibacterial and antioxidant activity. Remarkably, the in situ self-assembling of thiolated hyaluronic acid and Ag@Lig NPs yields nanocomposite hydrogels able to simultaneously inhibits the major factors involved in wound chronicity, namely the overexpressed deleterious proteolytic and oxidative enzymes, and high bacterial load.

JTD Keywords: catechol, chronic wounds, dressing materials, inhibition, mechanism, nano-enabled hydrogels, polyphenols, promogran, self-assembling, silver-lignin nanoparticles, systems, tannins, Chronic wounds, Degradation, Dressing materials, Nano-enabled hydrogels, Self-assembling, Silver-lignin nanoparticles, Thiolated hyaluronic acid

Rodríguez-Contreras A, Torres D, Rafik B, Ortiz-Hernandez M, Ginebra MP, Calero JA, Manero JM, Ruperez E, (2021). Bioactivity and antibacterial properties of calcium- and silver-doped coatings on 3D printed titanium scaffolds Surface & Coatings Technology 421

One of the major problems faced by metallic implants is the high probability of bacterial infections, with significant consequences for the patient. In this work, a thermochemical treatment is proposed to obtain silver-doped calcium titanate coatings on the Ti surface to improve the bioactivity of porous 3D-printed Ti structures and simultaneously provide them with antibacterial properties. A complete characterization of the new coating, the study of the ion release and the analysis of its cytotoxicity were carried out together with evaluation of the natural apatite forming in simulated body fluid (SBF). Moreover, the antibacterial properties of the coatings were assessed against Pseudomona aeruginosa and Escherichia coli as gram-negative and Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis as gram-positive bacterial strains. Ag ions were integrated into the Ca titanate layer and Ag nanoparticles were formed within the entire 3D Ti surface. Ca and Ag ions were released from both porous and solid samples into the Hanks' solution for 48 h. The treated surfaces showed no cytotoxicity and an apatite layer precipitated on the entire porous surface when the samples were immersed in SBF. The release of Ag from the surface had a strong antibacterial effect and prevented bacterial adhesion and proliferation on the surface. Moreover, the nanostructured topography of the coating resulted also in a reduction of bacterial adhesion and proliferation, even in absence of Ag. In conclusion, the cost-effective approach here reported provided protection against the most predominant bacterial colonizers to the Ti porous implants, while maintaining their bioactivity.

JTD Keywords: 3d-printing, alkaline, antibacterial activity, arthroplasty, bacterial adhesion, biomaterials, generation, ions, nanoparticles, osseointegration, silver, surface-layer, titanium implants, toxicity, 3d-printing, Antibacterial activity, Biomaterials, Porous structures, Silver, Ti metal, Titanium implants

Puiggalí-Jou, A, Babeli, I, Roa, JJ, Zoppe, JO, Garcia-Amorós, J, Ginebra, MP, Alemán, C, García-Torres, J, (2021). Remote Spatiotemporal Control of a Magnetic and Electroconductive Hydrogel Network via Magnetic Fields for Soft Electronic Applications Acs Applied Materials & Interfaces 13, 42486-42501

Multifunctional hydrogels are a class of materials offering new opportunities for interfacing living organisms with machines due to their mechanical compliance, biocompatibility, and capacity to be triggered by external stimuli. Here, we report a dual magnetic- and electric-stimuli-responsive hydrogel with the capacity to be disassembled and reassembled up to three times through reversible cross-links. This allows its use as an electronic device (e.g., temperature sensor) in the cross-linked state and spatiotemporal control through narrow channels in the disassembled state via the application of magnetic fields, followed by reassembly. The hydrogel consists of an interpenetrated polymer network of alginate (Alg) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), which imparts mechanical and electrical properties, respectively. In addition, the incorporation of magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) endows the hydrogel with magnetic properties. After structural, (electro)chemical, and physical characterization, we successfully performed dynamic and continuous transport of the hydrogel through disassembly, transporting the polymer-Fe3O4 NP aggregates toward a target using magnetic fields and its final reassembly to recover the multifunctional hydrogel in the cross-linked state. We also successfully tested the PEDOT/Alg/Fe3O4 NP hydrogel for temperature sensing and magnetic hyperthermia after various disassembly/re-cross-linking cycles. The present methodology can pave the way to a new generation of soft electronic devices with the capacity to be remotely transported.

JTD Keywords: conductive hydrogel, constructs, magnetic field, magnetite nanoparticle, nanoindentation, soft electronics, spatiotemporal control, Conductive hydrogel, Conductive hydrogels, Magnetic field, Magnetite nanoparticle, Soft electronics, Spatiotemporal control

Andrian, T, Delcanale, P, Pujals, S, Albertazzi, L, (2021). Correlating Super-Resolution Microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy Reveals Multiparametric Heterogeneity in Nanoparticles Nano Letters 21, 5360-5368

The functionalization of nanoparticles with functional moieties is a key strategy to achieve cell targeting in nanomedicine. The interplay between size and ligand number is crucial for the formulation performance and needs to be properly characterized to understand nanoparticle structure-activity relations. However, there is a lack of methods able to measure both size and ligand number at the same time and at the single particle level. Here, we address this issue by introducing a correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM) method combining super-resolution microscopy (SRM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging. We apply our super-resCLEM method to characterize the relationship between size and ligand number and density in PLGA-PEG nanoparticles. We highlight how heterogeneity found in size can impact ligand distribution and how a significant part of the nanoparticle population goes completely undetected in the single-technique analysis. Super-resCLEM holds great promise for the multiparametric analysis of other parameters and nanomaterials.

JTD Keywords: cellular uptake, correlative light and electron microscopy (clem), density, electron microscopy (em), functionalization, heterogeneity, nanomedicine, nanoparticles, pegylation, plga, progress, quantification, size, Correlative light and electron microscopy (clem), Electron microscopy (em), Heterogeneity, Nanomedicine, Nanoparticles, Physicochemical characterization, Super-resolution microscopy (srm)

Mares, AG, Pacassoni, G, Marti, JS, Pujals, S, Albertazzi, L, (2021). Formulation of tunable size PLGA-PEG nanoparticles for drug delivery using microfluidic technology Plos One 16, e0251821

Amphiphilic block co-polymer nanoparticles are interesting candidates for drug delivery as a result of their unique properties such as the size, modularity, biocompatibility and drug loading capacity. They can be rapidly formulated in a nanoprecipitation process based on self-assembly, resulting in kinetically locked nanostructures. The control over this step allows us to obtain nanoparticles with tailor-made properties without modification of the co-polymer building blocks. Furthermore, a reproducible and controlled formulation supports better predictability of a batch effectiveness in preclinical tests. Herein, we compared the formulation of PLGA-PEG nanoparticles using the typical manual bulk mixing and a microfluidic chip-assisted nanoprecipitation. The particle size tunability and controllability in a hydrodynamic flow focusing device was demonstrated to be greater than in the manual dropwise addition method. We also analyzed particle size and encapsulation of fluorescent compounds, using the common bulk analysis and advanced microscopy techniques: Transmission Electron Microscopy and Total Internal Reflection Microscopy, to reveal the heterogeneities occurred in the formulated nanoparticles. Finally, we performed in vitro evaluation of obtained NPs using MCF-7 cell line. Our results show how the microfluidic formulation improves the fine control over the resulting nanoparticles, without compromising any appealing property of PLGA nanoparticle. The combination of microfluidic formulation with advanced analysis methods, looking at the single particle level, can improve the understanding of the NP properties, heterogeneities and performance.

JTD Keywords: controlled-release, doxorubicin, encapsulation, functional nanoparticles, nanoprecipitation, pharmacokinetics, polymeric nanoparticles, shape, surface-chemistry, In-vitro

Blanco-Fernandez, B, Castano, O, Mateos-Timoneda, MA, Engel, E, Perez-Amodio, S, (2021). Nanotechnology Approaches in Chronic Wound Healing Advances In Wound Care 10, 234-256

Significance: The incidence of chronic wounds is increasing due to our aging population and the augment of people afflicted with diabetes. With the extended knowledge on the biological mechanisms underlying these diseases, there is a novel influx of medical technologies into the conventional wound care market. Recent Advances: Several nanotechnologies have been developed demonstrating unique characteristics that address specific problems related to wound repair mechanisms. In this review, we focus on the most recently developed nanotechnology-based therapeutic agents and evaluate the efficacy of each treatment in in vivo diabetic models of chronic wound healing. Critical Issues: Despite the development of potential biomaterials and nanotechnology-based applications for wound healing, this scientific knowledge is not translated into an increase of commercially available wound healing products containing nanomaterials. Future Directions: Further studies are critical to provide insights into how scientific evidences from nanotechnology-based therapies can be applied in the clinical setting.

JTD Keywords: chronic, diabetes, liposomes, nanofibers, nanoparticles, Chronic, Chronic wound, Diabetes, Diabetic wound, Diabetic-rats, Dressings, Drug mechanism, Extracellular-matrix, Growth-factor, Human, In-vitro, Liposome, Liposomes, Mesenchymal stem-cells, Metal nanoparticle, Nanofiber, Nanofibers, Nanofibrous scaffolds, Nanoparticles, Nanotechnology, Nonhuman, Polyester, Polymer, Polysaccharide, Priority journal, Protein, Review, Self assembled protein nanoparticle, Silk fibroin, Skin wounds, Wound healing, Wound healing promoting agent

Apriceno A, Silvestro I, Girelli A, Francolini I, Pietrelli L, Piozzi A, (2021). Preparation and characterization of chitosan-coated manganese-ferrite nanoparticles conjugated with laccase for environmental bioremediation Polymers 13,

Bioremediation with immobilized enzymes has several advantages, such as the enhancement of selectivity, activity, and stability of biocatalysts, as well as enzyme reusability. Laccase has proven to be a good candidate for the removal of a wide range of contaminants. In this study, naked or modified MnFe O magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were used as supports for the immobilization of laccase from Trametes versicolor. To increase enzyme loading and stability, MNPs were coated with chitosan both after the MNP synthesis (MNPs-CS) and during their formation (MNPs-CS ). SEM analysis showed different sizes for the two coated systems, 20 nm and 10 nm for MNPs-CS and MNPs-CS , respectively. After covalent immobilization of laccase by glutaraldehyde, the MNPs-CS -lac and MNPs-CS-lac systems showed a good resistance to temperature denaturation and storage stability. The most promising system for use in repeated batches was MNPs-CS -lac, which degraded about 80% of diclofenac compared to 70% of the free enzyme. The obtained results demonstrated that the MnFe O -CS system could be an excellent candidate for the removal of contaminants. 2 4 in situ in situ in situ in situ 2 4 in situ

JTD Keywords: bioremediation, chitosan, diclofenac, diclofenac removal, immobilized enzyme, laccase, magnetic nanoparticles, phase, removal, supports, Bioremediation, Chitosan, Diclofenac removal, Enzyme immobilization, Immobilized enzyme, Laccase, Magnetic nanoparticles

Magdanz V, Vivaldi J, Mohanty S, Klingner A, Vendittelli M, Simmchen J, Misra S, Khalil ISM, (2021). Impact of Segmented Magnetization on the Flagellar Propulsion of Sperm-Templated Microrobots Advanced Science 8, 2004037

© 2021 The Authors. Advanced Science published by Wiley-VCH GmbH Technical design features for improving the way a passive elastic filament produces propulsive thrust can be understood by analyzing the deformation of sperm-templated microrobots with segmented magnetization. Magnetic nanoparticles are electrostatically self-assembled on bovine sperm cells with nonuniform surface charge, producing different categories of sperm-templated microrobots. Depending on the amount and location of the nanoparticles on each cellular segment, magnetoelastic and viscous forces determine the wave pattern of each category during flagellar motion. Passively propagating waves are induced along the length of these microrobots using external rotating magnetic fields and the resultant wave patterns are measured. The response of the microrobots to the external field reveals distinct flow fields, propulsive thrust, and frequency responses during flagellar propulsion. This work allows predictions for optimizing the design and propulsion of flexible magnetic microrobots with segmented magnetization.

JTD Keywords: biohybrid microrobots, flagellar propulsion, magnetic actuation, nanoparticles, sperm cells, Biohybrid microrobots, Flagellar propulsion, Magnetic actuation, Nanoparticles, Sperm cells

Hortelao, AC, Simó, C, Guix, M, Guallar-Garrido, S, Julián, E, Vilela, D, Rejc, L, Ramos-Cabrer, P, Cossío, U, Gómez-Vallejo, V, Patiño, T, Llop, J, Sánchez, S, (2021). Swarming behavior and in vivo monitoring of enzymatic nanomotors within the bladder Science Robotics 6, eabd2823

Enzyme-powered nanomotors are an exciting technology for biomedical applications due to their ability to navigate within biological environments using endogenous fuels. However, limited studies into their collective behavior and demonstrations of tracking enzyme nanomotors in vivo have hindered progress toward their clinical translation. Here, we report the swarming behavior of urease-powered nanomotors and its tracking using positron emission tomography (PET), both in vitro and in vivo. For that, mesoporous silica nanoparticles containing urease enzymes and gold nanoparticles were used as nanomotors. To image them, nanomotors were radiolabeled with either I on gold nanoparticles or F-labeled prosthetic group to urease. In vitro experiments showed enhanced fluid mixing and collective migration of nanomotors, demonstrating higher capability to swim across complex paths inside microfabricated phantoms, compared with inactive nanomotors. In vivo intravenous administration in mice confirmed their biocompatibility at the administered dose and the suitability of PET to quantitatively track nanomotors in vivo. Furthermore, nanomotors were administered directly into the bladder of mice by intravesical injection. When injected with the fuel, urea, a homogeneous distribution was observed even after the entrance of fresh urine. By contrast, control experiments using nonmotile nanomotors (i.e., without fuel or without urease) resulted in sustained phase separation, indicating that the nanomotors’ self-propulsion promotes convection and mixing in living reservoirs. Active collective dynamics, together with the medical imaging tracking, constitute a key milestone and a step forward in the field of biomedical nanorobotics, paving the way toward their use in theranostic applications. 124 18

JTD Keywords: cell, reversal, silica nanoparticles, size, step, transport, Propelled micromotors

Moya-Andérico, L, Vukomanovic, M, Cendra, MD, Segura-Feliu, M, Gil, V, del Río, JA, Torrents, E, (2021). Utility of Galleria mellonella larvae for evaluating nanoparticle toxicology Chemosphere 266, 129235

© 2020 Elsevier Ltd The use of nanoparticles in consumer products is currently on the rise, so it is important to have reliable methods to predict any associated toxicity effects. Traditional in vitro assays fail to mimic true physiological responses of living organisms against nanoparticles whereas murine in vivo models are costly and ethically controversial. For these reasons, this study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Galleria mellonella as an alternative, non-rodent in vivo model for examining nanoparticle toxicity. Silver, selenium, and functionalized gold nanoparticles were synthesized, and their toxicity was assessed in G. mellonella larvae. The degree of acute toxicity effects caused by each type of NP was efficiently detected by an array of indicators within the larvae: LD50 calculation, hemocyte proliferation, NP distribution, behavioral changes, and histological alterations. G. mellonella larvae are proposed as a nanotoxicological model that can be used as a bridge between in vitro and in vivo murine assays in order to obtain better predictions of NP toxicity.

JTD Keywords: cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, galleria mellonella, gold nanoparticles, hemocytes, nanoparticles, nanotoxicity, non-rodent in vivo model, non-rodent in vivo model, oxidative stress, selenium-compounds, silica nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles, toxicity, toxicity screening, vitro, Galleria mellonella, Hemocytes, In-vivo model, Nanoparticles, Nanotoxicity, Non-rodent in vivo model, Toxicity screening

Puiggalí-Jou, A, Wedepohl, S, Theune, LE, Alemán, C, Calderón, M, (2021). Effect of conducting/thermoresponsive polymer ratio on multitasking nanogels Materials Science & Engineering C-Materials For Biological Applications 119, 111598

© 2020 Elsevier B.V. Semi-interpenetrated nanogels (NGs) able to release and sense diclofenac (DIC) have been designed to act as photothermal agents with the possibility to ablate cancer cells using mild-temperatures (<45 °C). Combining mild heat treatments with simultaneous chemotherapy appears as a very promising therapeutic strategy to avoid heat resistance or damaging the surrounding tissues. Particularly, NGs consisted on a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) and dendritic polyglycerol (dPG) mesh containing a semi-interpenetrating network (SIPN) of poly(hydroxymethyl 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PHMeEDOT). The PHMeEDOT acted as photothermal and conducting agent, while PNIPAM-dPG NG provided thermoresponsivity and acted as stabilizer. We studied how semi-interpenetration modified the physicochemical characteristics of the thermoresponsive SIPN NGs and selected the best condition to generate a multifunctional photothermal agent. The thermoswitchable conductiveness of the multifunctional NGs and the redox activity of DIC could be utilized for its electrochemical detection. Besides, as proof of the therapeutic concept, we investigated the combinatorial effect of photothermal therapy (PTT) and DIC treatment using the HeLa cancer cell line in vitro. Within 15 min NIR irradiation without surpassing 45 °C we were able to kill 95% of the cells, demonstrating the potential of SIPN NGs as drug carriers, sensors and agents for mild PTT.

JTD Keywords: cells, cellulose, conducting polymers, controlled delivery, diclofenac, efficiency, electrochemical oxidation, electrochemical sensors, nanogels, nanoparticles, photothermal therapy, pnipam, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), Conducting polymers, Electrochemical sensors, Nanogels, Photothermal therapy

Woythe, L, Tito, NB, Albertazzi, L, (2021). A quantitative view on multivalent nanomedicine targeting Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews 169, 1-21

© 2020 The Authors Although the concept of selective delivery has been postulated over 100 years ago, no targeted nanomedicine has been clinically approved so far. Nanoparticles modified with targeting ligands to promote the selective delivery of therapeutics towards a specific cell population have been extensively reported. However, the rational design of selective particles is still challenging. One of the main reasons for this is the lack of quantitative theoretical and experimental understanding of the interactions involved in cell targeting. In this review, we discuss new theoretical models and experimental methods that provide a quantitative view of targeting. We show the new advancements in multivalency theory enabling the rational design of super-selective nanoparticles. Furthermore, we present the innovative approaches to obtain key targeting parameters at the single-cell and single molecule level and their role in the design of targeting nanoparticles. We believe that the combination of new theoretical multivalent design and experimental methods to quantify receptors and ligands aids in the rational design and clinical translation of targeted nanomedicines.

JTD Keywords: binding-kinetics, biological identity, biomolecular corona, blood-brain-barrier, drug-delivery, gold nanoparticles, multivalency, nanotechnology, protein corona, quantitative characterization, rational design, super-selectivity, superresolution microscopy, tumor heterogeneity, Ligand-receptor interactions, Multivalency, Nanotechnology, Quantitative characterization, Rational design, Super-selectivity

Feiner-Gracia, N, Mares, AG, Buzhor, M, Rodriguez-Trujillo, R, Marti, JS, Amir, RJ, Pujals, S, Albertazzi, L, (2021). Real-Time Ratiometric Imaging of Micelles Assembly State in a Microfluidic Cancer-on-a-Chip Acs Applied Bio Materials 4, 669-681

© 2020 American Chemical Society. The performance of supramolecular nanocarriers as drug delivery systems depends on their stability in the complex and dynamic biological media. After administration, nanocarriers are challenged by physiological barriers such as shear stress and proteins present in blood, endothelial wall, extracellular matrix, and eventually cancer cell membrane. While early disassembly will result in a premature drug release, extreme stability of the nanocarriers can lead to poor drug release and low efficiency. Therefore, comprehensive understanding of the stability and assembly state of supramolecular carriers in each stage of delivery is the key factor for the rational design of these systems. One of the main challenges is that current 2D in vitro models do not provide exhaustive information, as they fail to recapitulate the 3D tumor microenvironment. This deficiency in the 2D model complexity is the main reason for the differences observed in vivo when testing the performance of supramolecular nanocarriers. Herein, we present a real-time monitoring study of self-assembled micelles stability and extravasation, combining spectral confocal microscopy and a microfluidic cancer-on-a-chip. The combination of advanced imaging and a reliable 3D model allows tracking of micelle disassembly by following the spectral properties of the amphiphiles in space and time during the crucial steps of drug delivery. The spectrally active micelles were introduced under flow and their position and conformation continuously followed by spectral imaging during the crossing of barriers, revealing the interplay between carrier structure, micellar stability, and extravasation. Integrating the ability of the micelles to change their fluorescent properties when disassembled, spectral confocal imaging and 3D microfluidic tumor blood vessel-on-a-chip resulted in the establishment of a robust testing platform suitable for real-time imaging and evaluation of supramolecular drug delivery carrier's stability.

JTD Keywords: cancer-on-a-chip, complex, delivery, endothelial-cells, in-vitro, microfluidic, model, nanoparticle, penetration, shear-stress, stability, supramolecular, Cancer-on-a-chip, Cell-culture, Micelle, Microfluidic, Nanoparticle, Stability, Supramolecular

Marti, D, Martin-Martinez, E, Torras, J, Bertran, O, Turon, P, Aleman, C, (2021). In silico antibody engineering for SARS-CoV-2 detection Computational And Structural Biotechnology Journal 19, 5525-5534

Engineered immunoglobulin-G molecules (IgGs) are of wide interest for the development of detection elements in protein-based biosensors with clinical applications. The strategy usually employed for the de novo design of such engineered IgGs consists on merging fragments of the three-dimensional structure of a native IgG, which is immobilized on the biosensor surface, and of an antibody with an exquisite target specificity and affinity. In this work conventional and accelerated classical molecular dynamics (cMD and aMD, respectively) simulations have been used to propose two IgG-like antibodies for COVID-19 detection. More specifically, the crystal structure of the IgG1 B12 antibody, which inactivates the human immunodeficiency virus-1, has been merged with the structure of the antibody CR3022 Fab tightly bounded to SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) and the structure of the 5309 antibody Fab fragment complexed with SARS-CoV-2 RBD. The two constructed antibodies, named IgG1-CR3022 and IgG1-S309, respectively, have been immobilized on a stable gold surface through a linker. Analyses of the influence of both the merging strategy and the substrate on the stability of the two constructs indicate that the IgG1-S309 antibody better preserves the neutralizing structure than the IgG1-CR3022 one. Overall, results indicate that the IgG1-S309 is appropriated for the generation of antibody based sensors for COVID-19 diagnosis. (C) 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Research Network of Computational and Structural Biotechnology.

JTD Keywords: cr3022, igg1, molecular engineering, s309, Antibodies, Antibody engineering, Biosensors, Chemical detection, Clinical application, Cov, Cr3022, Crystal structure, Design, Diseases, Gold nanoparticles, Igg1, Igg1 antibody, Immobilization, Immunoglobulin g, Immunosensor, In-silico, Merging, Molecular dynamics, Molecular engineering, Orientation, Protein-based biosensors, Receptor-binding domains, S309, Sars, Sensor, Spike protein, Target, Vaccine, Viruses

Sola-Barrado, B., M. Leite, D., Scarpa, E., Duro-Castano, A., Battaglia, G., (2020). Combinatorial intracellular delivery screening of anticancer drugs Molecular Pharmaceutics 17, (12), 4709-4714

Conventional drug solubilization strategies limit the understanding of the full potential of poorly water-soluble drugs during drug screening. Here, we propose a screening approach in which poorly water-soluble drugs are entrapped in poly(2-(methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine)-poly(2-(diisopropylaminoethyl methacryate) (PMPC-PDPA) polymersomes (POs) to enhance drug solubility and facilitate intracellular delivery. By using a human pediatric glioma cell model, we demonstrated that PMPC-PDPA POs mediated intracellular delivery of cytotoxic and epigenetic drugs by receptor-mediated endocytosis. Additionally, when delivered in combination, drug-loaded PMPC-PDPA POs triggered both an enhanced drug efficacy and synergy compared to that of a conventional combinatorial screening. Hence, our comprehensive synergy analysis illustrates that our screening methodology, in which PMPC-PDPA POs are used for intracellular codelivery of drugs, allows us to identify potent synergistic profiles of anticancer drugs.

JTD Keywords: Combination therapy, Drug screening, Drug solubilization, Intracellular drug delivery, Polymeric nanoparticles, Synergy analysis

Delcanale, P., Albertazzi, L., (2020). DNA-PAINT super-resolution imaging data of surface exposed active sites on particles Data in Brief 30, 105468

Surface functionalization with targeting ligands confers to nanomaterials the ability of selectively recognize a biological target. Therefore, a quantitative characterization of surface functional molecules is critical for the rational development of nanomaterials-based applications, especially in nanomedicine research. Single-molecule localization microscopy can provide visualization of surface molecules at the level of individual particles, preserving the integrity of the material and overcoming the limitations of analytical methods based on ensemble averaging. Here we provide single-molecule localization data obtained on streptavidin-coated polystyrene particles, which can be exploited as a model system for surface-functionalized materials. After loading of the active sites of streptavidin molecules with a biotin-conjugated probe, they were imaged with a DNA-PAINT imaging approach, which can provide single-molecule imaging at subdiffraction resolution and molecule counting. Both raw records and analysed data, consisting in a list of space-time single-molecule coordinates, are shared. Additionally, Matlab functions are provided that analyse the single-molecule coordinates in order to quantify features of individual particles. These data might constitute a valuable reference for applications of similar quantitative imaging methodologies to other types of functionalized nanomaterials.

JTD Keywords: DNA-PAINT, Functional materials, Nanoparticles, Single-molecule localization microscopy, Super-resolution microscopy

Vukomanovic, M., Torrents, E., (2019). High time resolution and high signal-to-noise monitoring of the bacterial growth kinetics in the presence of plasmonic nanoparticles Journal of Nanobiotechnology 17, (1), 21

Background: Emerging concepts for designing innovative drugs (i.e., novel generations of antimicrobials) frequently include nanostructures, new materials, and nanoparticles (NPs). Along with numerous advantages, NPs bring limitations, partly because they can limit the analytical techniques used for their biological and in vivo validation. From that standpoint, designing innovative drug delivery systems requires advancements in the methods used for their testing and investigations. Considering the well-known ability of resazurin-based methods for rapid detection of bacterial metabolisms with very high sensitivity, in this work we report a novel optimization for tracking bacterial growth kinetics in the presence of NPs with specific characteristics, such as specific optical properties. Results: Arginine-functionalized gold composite (HAp/Au/arginine) NPs, used as the NP model for validation of the method, possess plasmonic properties and are characterized by intensive absorption in the UV/vis region with a surface plasmon resonance maximum at 540 nm. Due to the specific optical properties, the NP absorption intensively interferes with the light absorption measured during the evaluation of bacterial growth (optical density; OD600). The results confirm substantial nonspecific interference by NPs in the signal detected during a regular turbidity study used for tracking bacterial growth. Instead, during application of a resazurin-based method (Presto Blue), when a combination of absorption and fluorescence detection is applied, a substantial increase in the signal-to-noise ratio is obtained that leads to the improvement of the accuracy of the measurements as verified in three bacterial strains tested with different growth rates (E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and S. aureus). Conclusions: Here, we described a novel procedure that enables the kinetics of bacterial growth in the presence of NPs to be followed with high time resolution, high sensitivity, and without sampling during the kinetic study. We showed the applicability of the Presto Blue method for the case of HAp/Au/arginine NPs, which can be extended to various types of metallic NPs with similar characteristics. The method is a very easy, economical, and reliable option for testing NPs designed as novel antimicrobials.

JTD Keywords: Antimicrobial nanoparticles, Arginine-functionalized gold, Bacterial growth kinetics, Plasmonic nanoparticles, Presto Blue

De Matteis, Valeria, Rizzello, Loris, Ingrosso, Chiara, Liatsi-Douvitsa, Eva, De Giorgi, Maria Luisa, De Matteis, Giovanni, Rinaldi, Rosaria, (2019). Cultivar-dependent anticancer and antibacterial properties of silver nanoparticles synthesized using leaves of different Olea Europaea trees Nanomaterials 9, (11), 1544

The green synthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) is currently under worldwide investigation as an eco-friendly alternative to traditional routes (NPs): the absence of toxic solvents and catalysts make it suitable in the design of promising nanomaterials for nanomedicine applications. In this work, we used the extracts collected from leaves of two cultivars (Leccino and Carolea) belonging to the species Olea Europaea, to synthesize silver NPs (AgNPs) in different pH conditions and low temperature. NPs underwent full morphological characterization with the aim to define a suitable protocol to obtain a monodispersed population of AgNPs. Afterwards, to validate the reproducibility of the mentioned synthetic procedure, we moved on to another Mediterranean plant, the Laurus Nobilis. Interestingly, the NPs obtained using the two olive cultivars produced NPs with different shape and size, strictly depending on the cultivar selected and pH. Furthermore, the potential ability to inhibit the growth of two woman cancer cells (breast adenocarcinoma cells, MCF-7 and human cervical epithelioid carcinoma, HeLa) were assessed for these AgNPs, as well as their capability to mitigate the bacteria concentration in samples of contaminated well water. Our results showed that toxicity was stronger when MCF-7 and Hela cells were exposed to AgNPs derived from Carolea obtained at pH 7 presenting irregular shape; on the other hand, greater antibacterial effect was revealed using AgNPs obtained at pH 8 (smaller and monodispersed) on well water, enriched with bacteria and coliforms.

JTD Keywords: Green synthesis, Silver nanoparticles, Olea Europaea, Leccino, Carolea, Cytotoxicity, Genotoxicity, Antibacterial activity

Oliveira, V. R., Uriarte, J. J., Falcones, B., Jorba, I., Zin, W. A., Farré, R., Navajas, D., Almendros, I., (2019). Biomechanical response of lung epithelial cells to iron oxide and titanium dioxide nanoparticles Frontiers in Physiology 10, 1047

Increasing evidence shows that lungs can be damaged by inhalation of nanoparticles (NPs) at environmental and occupational settings. Recent findings have associated the exposure to iron oxide (Fe2O3) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) – NPs widely used in biomedical and clinical research – with pulmonary oxidative stress and inflammation. Although changes on cellular mechanics could contribute to pulmonary inflammation, there is no information regarding the effects of Fe2O3 and TiO2 on alveolar epithelial cell biomechanics. The aim was to investigate the NPs-induced biomechanical effects in terms of cell stiffness and traction forces exerted by human alveolar epithelial cells. Cell Young’s modulus (E) measured by atomic force microscopy in alveolar epithelial cells significantly decreased after exposure to Fe2O3 and TiO2 (-28 and -25%, respectively) compared to control conditions. Moreover, both NPs induced a similar reduction in the traction forces exerted by the alveolar epithelial cells in comparison to the control conditions. Accordingly, immunofluorescence images revealed a reduction of actomyosin stress fibers in response to the exposure to NPs. However, no inflammatory response was detected. In conclusion, an acute exposure of epithelial pulmonary cells to Fe2O3 and TiO2 NPs, which was mild since it was non-cytotoxic and did not induce inflammation, modified cell biomechanical properties which could be translated into damage of the epithelial barrier integrity, suggesting that mild environmental inhalation of Fe2O3 and TiO2 NPs could not be innocuous.

JTD Keywords: Actomyosin fibers, Air pollution, Cell biomechanics, Lung epithelium, Nanoparticles

Silva, N., Riveros, A., Yutronic, N., Lang, E., Chornik, B., Guerrero, S., Samitier, J., Jara, P., Kogan, M. J., (2018). Photothermally controlled methotrexate release system using β-cyclodextrin and gold nanoparticles Nanomaterials 8, (12), 985

The inclusion compound (IC) of cyclodextrin (CD) containing the antitumor drug Methotrexate (MTX) as a guest molecule was obtained to increase the solubility of MTX and decrease its inherent toxic effects in nonspecific cells. The IC was conjugated with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), obtained by a chemical method, creating a ternary intelligent delivery system for MTX molecules, based on the plasmonic properties of the AuNPs. Irradiation of the ternary system, with a laser wavelength tunable with the corresponding surface plasmon of AuNPs, causes local energy dissipation, producing the controlled release of the guest from CD cavities. Finally, cell viability was evaluated using MTS assays for β-CD/MTX and AuNPs + β-CD/MTX samples, with and without irradiation, against HeLa tumor cells. The irradiated sample of the ternary system AuNPs + β-CD/MTX produced a diminution in cell viability attributed to the photothermal release of MTX.

JTD Keywords: Cyclodextrin, Delivery system, Gold nanoparticles, Inclusion compound, Irradiation, Laser, Methotrexate, Photothermal release

Gállego, Isaac, Manning, Brendan, Prades, Joan Daniel, Mir, Mònica, Samitier, Josep, Eritja, Ramon, (2017). DNA-origami-driven lithography for patterning on gold surfaces with sub-10 nm resolution Advanced Materials 29, 1603233

Feiner-Gracia, Natalia, Beck, Michaela, Pujals, Sílvia, Tosi, Sébastien, Mandal, Tamoghna, Buske, Christian, Linden, Mika, Albertazzi, Lorenzo, (2017). Super-resolution microscopy unveils dynamic heterogeneities in nanoparticle protein corona Small 13, (41), 1701631

The adsorption of serum proteins, leading to the formation of a biomolecular corona, is a key determinant of the biological identity of nanoparticles in vivo. Therefore, gaining knowledge on the formation, composition, and temporal evolution of the corona is of utmost importance for the development of nanoparticle-based therapies. Here, it is shown that the use of super-resolution optical microscopy enables the imaging of the protein corona on mesoporous silica nanoparticles with single protein sensitivity. Particle-by-particle quantification reveals a significant heterogeneity in protein absorption under native conditions. Moreover, the diversity of the corona evolves over time depending on the surface chemistry and degradability of the particles. This paper investigates the consequences of protein adsorption for specific cell targeting by antibody-functionalized nanoparticles providing a detailed understanding of corona-activity relations. The methodology is widely applicable to a variety of nanostructures and complements the existing ensemble approaches for protein corona study.

JTD Keywords: Heterogeneity, Mesoporous silica nanoparticles, Protein corona, Super-resolution imaging, Targeting

Vilela, D., Stanton, M. M., Parmar, J., Sánchez, S., (2017). Microbots decorated with silver nanoparticles kill bacteria in aqueous media ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 9, (27), 22093-22100

Water contamination is one of the most persistent problems of public health. Resistance of some pathogens to conventional disinfectants can require the combination of multiple disinfectants or increased disinfectant doses, which may produce harmful byproducts. Here, we describe an efficient method for disinfecting Escherichia coli and removing the bacteria from contaminated water using water self-propelled Janus microbots decorated with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The structure of a spherical Janus microbot consists of a magnesium (Mg) microparticle as a template that also functions as propulsion source by producing hydrogen bubbles when in contact with water, an inner iron (Fe) magnetic layer for their remote guidance and collection, and an outer AgNP-coated gold (Au) layer for bacterial adhesion and improving bactericidal properties. The active motion of microbots increases the chances of the contact of AgNPs on the microbot surface with bacteria, which provokes the selective Ag+ release in their cytoplasm, and the microbot self-propulsion increases the diffusion of the released Ag+ ions. In addition, the AgNP-coated Au cap of the microbots has a dual capability of capturing bacteria and then killing them. Thus, we have demonstrated that AgNP-coated Janus microbots are capable of efficiently killing more than 80% of E. coli compared with colloidal AgNPs that killed only less than 35% of E. coli in contaminated water solutions in 15 min. After capture and extermination of bacteria, magnetic properties of the cap allow collection of microbots from water along with the captured dead bacteria, leaving water with no biological contaminants. The presented biocompatible Janus microbots offer an encouraging method for rapid disinfection of water.

JTD Keywords: Bactericidal, Magnetic control, Micromotors, Microswimmers, Self-propulsion, Silver nanoparticles

Gállego, Isaac, Manning, Brendan, Prades, Joan Daniel, Mir, Mónica, Samitier, Josep, Eritja, Ramon, (2017). DNA-Origami-Aided Lithography for Sub-10 Nanometer Pattern Printing Proceedings Eurosensors 2017 , MDPI (Paris, France) 1, (4), 325

We report the first DNA-based origami technique that can print addressable patterns on surfaces with sub-10 nm resolution. Specifically, we have used a two-dimensional DNA origami as a template (DNA origami stamp) to transfer DNA with pre-programmed patterns (DNA ink) on gold surfaces. The DNA ink is composed of thiol-modified staple strands incorporated at specific positions of the DNA origami stamp to create patterns upon thiol-gold bond formation on the surface (DNA ink). The DNA pattern formed is composed of unique oligonucleotide sequences, each of which is individually addressable. As a proof-of-concept, we created a linear pattern of oligonucleotide-modified gold nanoparticles complementary to the DNA ink pattern. We have developed an in silico model to identify key elements in the formation of our DNA origami-driven lithography and nanoparticle patterning as well as simulate more complex nanoparticle patterns on surfaces.

JTD Keywords: DNA nanotechnology, Lithography, Nanopatterning, Gold nanoparticles, Metasurfaces

De Koker, Stefaan, Cui, Jiwei, Vanparijs, Nane, Albertazzi, Lorenzo, Grooten, Johan, Caruso, Frank, De Geest, Bruno G., (2016). Engineering polymer hydrogel nanoparticles for lymph node-targeted delivery Angewandte Chemie - International Edition 55, (4), 1334-1339

The induction of antigen-specific adaptive immunity exclusively occurs in lymphoid organs. As a consequence, the efficacy by which vaccines reach these tissues strongly affects the efficacy of the vaccine. Here, we report the design of polymer hydrogel nanoparticles that efficiently target multiple immune cell subsets in the draining lymph nodes. Nanoparticles are fabricated by infiltrating mesoporous silica particles (ca. 200 nm) with poly(methacrylic acid) followed by disulfide-based crosslinking and template removal. PEGylation of these nanoparticles does not affect their cellular association in vitro, but dramatically improves their lymphatic drainage in vivo. The functional relevance of these observations is further illustrated by the increased priming of antigen-specific T cells. Our findings highlight the potential of engineered hydrogel nanoparticles for the lymphatic delivery of antigens and immune-modulating compounds.

JTD Keywords: Dendritic cells, Disulfides, Hydrogels, Nanoparticles, Vaccines

Silva, N., Muñoz, C., Diaz-Marcos, J., Samitier, J., Yutronic, N., Kogan, M. J., Jara, P., (2016). In situ visualization of the local photothermal effect produced on α-cyclodextrin inclusion compound associated with gold nanoparticles Nanoscale Research Letters 11, 180

Evidence of guest migration in α-cyclodextrin-octylamine (α-CD-OA) inclusion compound (IC) generated via plasmonic heating of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has been studied. In this report, we demonstrate local effects generated by laser-mediated irradiation of a sample of AuNPs covered with inclusion compounds on surface-derivatized glass under liquid conditions by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Functionalized AuNPs on the glass and covered by the ICs were monitored by recording images by AFM during 5 h of irradiation, and images showed that after irradiation, a drastic decrease in the height of the AuNPs occurred. The absorption spectrum of the irradiated sample showed a hypsochromic shift from 542 to 536 nm, evidence suggesting that much of the population of nanoparticles lost all of the parts of the overlay of ICs due to the plasmonic heat generated by the irradiation. Mass spectrometry matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) performed on a sample containing a collection of drops obtained from the surface of the functionalized glass provided evidence that the irradiation lead to disintegration of the ICs and therefore exit of the octylamine molecule (the guest) from the cyclodextrin cavity (the matrix).

JTD Keywords: Cyclodextrin inclusion compound, Gold nanoparticles, Guest migration, Plasmonic heating

Ma, X., Jannasch, A., Albrecht, U. R., Hahn, K., Miguel-López, A., Schäffer, E., Sánchez, S., (2015). Enzyme-powered hollow mesoporous Janus nanomotors Nano Letters 15, (10), 7043-7050

The development of synthetic nanomotors for technological applications in particular for life science and nanomedicine is a key focus of current basic research. However, it has been challenging to make active nanosystems based on biocompatible materials consuming nontoxic fuels for providing self-propulsion. Here, we fabricate self-propelled Janus nanomotors based on hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (HMSNPs), which are powered by biocatalytic reactions of three different enzymes: catalase, urease, and glucose oxidase (GOx). The active motion is characterized by a mean-square displacement (MSD) analysis of optical video recordings and confirmed by dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements. We found that the apparent diffusion coefficient was enhanced by up to 83%. In addition, using optical tweezers, we directly measured a holding force of 64 ± 16 fN, which was necessary to counteract the effective self-propulsion force generated by a single nanomotor. The successful demonstration of biocompatible enzyme-powered active nanomotors using biologically benign fuels has a great potential for future biomedical applications.

JTD Keywords: Enzyme, Hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles, Hybrid motors, Janus particles, Nanomotors, Optical tweezers

Baelo, Aida, Levato, Riccardo, Julián, Esther, Crespo, Anna, Astola, José, Gavaldà, Joan, Engel, Elisabeth, Mateos-Timoneda, Miguel Angel, Torrents, Eduard, (2015). Disassembling bacterial extracellular matrix with DNase-coated nanoparticles to enhance antibiotic delivery in biofilm infections Journal of Controlled Release 209, 150-158

Abstract Infections caused by biofilm-forming bacteria are a major threat to hospitalized patients and the main cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cystic fibrosis. There is an urgent necessity for novel therapeutic approaches, since current antibiotic delivery fails to eliminate biofilm-protected bacteria. In this study, ciprofloxacin-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles, which were functionalized with DNase I, were fabricated using a green-solvent based method and their antibiofilm activity was assessed against Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. Such nanoparticles constitute a paradigm shift in biofilm treatment, since, besides releasing ciprofloxacin in a controlled fashion, they are able to target and disassemble the biofilm by degrading the extracellular DNA that stabilize the biofilm matrix. These carriers were compared with free-soluble ciprofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin encapsulated in untreated and poly(lysine)-coated nanoparticles. DNase I-activated nanoparticles were not only able to prevent biofilm formation from planktonic bacteria, but they also successfully reduced established biofilm mass, size and living cell density, as observed in a dynamic environment in a flow cell biofilm assay. Moreover, repeated administration over three days of DNase I-coated nanoparticles encapsulating ciprofloxacin was able to reduce by 95% and then eradicate more than 99.8% of established biofilm, outperforming all the other nanoparticle formulations and the free-drug tested in this study. These promising results, together with minimal cytotoxicity as tested on J774 macrophages, allow obtaining novel antimicrobial nanoparticles, as well as provide clues to design the next generation of drug delivery devices to treat persistent bacterial infections.

JTD Keywords: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Biofilm, Ciprofloxacin, DNase I, Nanoparticles

Seo, K. D., Kwak, B. K., Sánchez, S., Kim, D. S., (2015). Microfluidic-assisted fabrication of flexible and location traceable organo-motor IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience , 14, (3), 298-304

In this paper, we fabricate a flexible and location traceable micromotor, called organo-motor, assisted by microfluidic devices and with high throughput. The organo-motors are composed of organic hydrogel material, poly (ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA), which can provide the flexibility of their structure. For spatial and temporal traceability of the organo-motors under magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION; Fe3O4) were incorporated into the PEGDA microhydrogels. Furthermore, a thin layer of platinum (Pt) was deposited onto one side of the SPION-PEGDA microhydrogels providing geometrical asymmetry and catalytic propulsion in aqueous fluids containing hydrogen peroxide solution, H2O2. Furthermore, the motion of the organo-motor was controlled by a small external magnet enabled by the presence of SPION in the motor architecture.

JTD Keywords: Flexible, Hydrogel, Magnetic resonance imaging, Microfluidics, Micromotor, Microparticle, Organo-motor, Poly (ethylene glycol) diacrylate, Self-propulsion, Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

Fernàndez-Busquets, X., (2014). Toy kit against malaria: Magic bullets, LEGO, Trojan horses and Russian dolls Therapeutic Delivery , 5, (10), 1049-1052

Movellan, J., Urbán, P., Moles, E., de la Fuente, J. M., Sierra, T., Serrano, J. L., Fernàndez-Busquets, X., (2014). Amphiphilic dendritic derivatives as nanocarriers for the targeted delivery of antimalarial drugs Biomaterials 35, (27), 7940-7950

It can be foreseen that in a future scenario of malaria eradication, a varied armamentarium will be required, including strategies for the targeted administration of antimalarial compounds. The development of nanovectors capable of encapsulating drugs and of delivering them to Plasmodium-infected cells with high specificity and efficacy and at an affordable cost is of particular interest. With this objective, dendritic derivatives based on 2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)propionic acid (bis-MPA) and Pluronic® polymers have been herein explored. Four different dendritic derivatives have been tested for their capacity to encapsulate the antimalarial drugs chloroquine (CQ) and primaquine (PQ), their specific targeting to Plasmodium-infected red blood cells (pRBCs), and their antimalarial activity in vitro against the human pathogen Plasmodium falciparum and in vivo against the rodent malaria species Plasmodium yoelii. The results obtained have allowed the identification of two dendritic derivatives exhibiting specific targeting to pRBCs vs. non-infected RBCs, which reduce the in vitro IC50 of CQ and PQ by ca. 3- and 4-fold down to 4.0 nm and 1.1 μm, respectively. This work on the application of dendritic derivatives to antimalarial targeted drug delivery opens the way for the use of this new type of chemicals in future malaria eradication programs.

JTD Keywords: Antimalarial targeted drug delivery, Dendrimers, Malaria, Nanomedicine, Plasmodium, Polymeric nanoparticles

Urbán, P., Fernàndez-Busquets, X., (2014). Nanomedicine against malaria Current Medicinal Chemistry , 21, (5), 605-629

Malaria is arguably one of the main medical concerns worldwide because of the numbers of people affected, the severity of the disease and the complexity of the life cycle of its causative agent, the protist Plasmodium sp. The clinical, social and economic burden of malaria has led for the last 100 years to several waves of serious efforts to reach its control and eventual eradication, without success to this day. With the advent of nanoscience, renewed hopes have appeared of finally obtaining the long sought-after magic bullet against malaria in the form of a nanovector for the targeted delivery of antimalarial drugs exclusively to Plasmodium-infected cells. Different types of encapsulating structure, targeting molecule, and antimalarial compound will be discussed for the assembly of Trojan horse nanocapsules capable of targeting with complete specificity diseased cells and of delivering inside them their antimalarial cargo with the objective of eliminating the parasite with a single dose. Nanotechnology can also be applied to the discovery of new antimalarials through single-molecule manipulation approaches for the identification of novel drugs targeting essential molecular components of the parasite. Finally, methods for the diagnosis of malaria can benefit from nanotools applied to the design of microfluidic-based devices for the accurate identification of the parasite's strain, its precise infective load, and the relative content of the different stages of its life cycle, whose knowledge is essential for the administration of adequate therapies. The benefits and drawbacks of these nanosystems will be considered in different possible scenarios, including cost-related issues that might be hampering the development of nanotechnology-based medicines against malaria with the dubious argument that they are too expensive to be used in developing areas.

JTD Keywords: Dendrimers, Liposomes, Malaria diagnosis, Nanobiosensors, Nanoparticles, Plasmodium, Polymers, Targeted drug delivery

Fumagalli, L., Edwards, Martin Andrew, Gomila, G., (2014). Quantitative electrostatic force microscopy with sharp silicon tips Nanotechnology 25, (49), 495701 (9)

Electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) probes are typically coated in either metal (radius ~ 30 nm) or highly-doped diamond (radius ~ 100 nm). Highly-doped silicon probes, which offer a sharpened and stable tip apex (radius ~ 1–10 nm) and are usually used only in standard atomic force microscopy, have been recently shown to allow enhanced lateral resolution in quantitative EFM and its application for dielectric constant measurement. Here we present the theoretical modelling required to quantitatively interpret the electrostatic force between these sharpened tips and samples. In contrast to a sphere-capped cone geometry used to describe metal/diamond-coated tips, modelling a sharpened silicon tip requires a geometry comprised of a cone with two different angles. Theoretical results are supported by experimental measurements of metallic substrates and ~10 nm radius dielectric nanoparticles. This work is equally applicable to EFM and other electrical scanned probe techniques, where it allows quantifying electrical properties of nanomaterials and 3D nano-objects with higher resolution.

JTD Keywords: AFM, Dielectric constant, EFM, Dielectrics, Nanoparticles, Sharp tips

Rajzer, I., Menaszek, E., Kwiatkowski, R., Planell, J. A., Castaño, O., (2014). Electrospun gelatin/poly(ε-caprolactone) fibrous scaffold modified with calcium phosphate for bone tissue engineering Materials Science and Engineering: C 44, 183-190

In this study gelatin (Gel) modified with calcium phosphate nanoparticles (SG5) and polycaprolactone (PCL) were used to prepare a 3D bi-layer scaffold by collecting electrospun PCL and gelatin/SG5 fibers separately in the same collector. The objective of this study was to combine the desired properties of PCL and Gel/SG5 in the same scaffold in order to enhance mineralization, thus improving the ability of the scaffold to bond to the bone tissue. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and the wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) measurements confirmed that SG5 nanoparticles were successfully incorporated into the fibrous gelatin matrix. The composite Gel/SG5/PCL scaffold exhibited more enhanced mechanical properties than individual Gel and Gel/SG5 scaffolds. The presence of SG5 nanoparticles accelerated the nucleation and growth of apatite crystals on the surface of the composite Gel/SG5/PCL scaffold in simulated body fluid (SBF). The osteoblast response in vitro to developed electrospun scaffolds (PCL and Gel/SG5/PCL) was investigated by using normal human primary NHOst cell lines. NHOst cell culture studies showed that higher alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and better mineralization were obtained in the case of composite materials than in pure PCL scaffolds. The mechanically strong PCL scaffold served as a skeleton, while the Gel/SG5 fibers facilitated cell spreading and mineralization of the scaffold.

JTD Keywords: Bilayer fibrous scaffold, Ceramic nanoparticles, Electrospinning, Gelatin, Polycaprolactone, Biomechanics, Bone, Calcium phosphate, Cell culture, Electrospinning, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Mechanical properties, Mineralogy, Nanoparticles, Phosphatases, Polycaprolactone, Scanning electron microscopy, X ray diffraction, Polycaprolactone, Alkaline phosphatase activity, Bone tissue engineering, Calcium phosphate nanoparticles, Ceramic nanoparticles, Fibrous scaffolds, Gelatin, Simulated body fluids, Wide-angle x-ray diffraction, Electrospuns, Scaffolds (biology), Electrospinning

Sachot, N., Engel, E., Castaño, O., (2014). Hybrid organic-inorganic scaffolding biomaterials for regenerative therapies Current Organic Chemistry , 18, (18), 2299-2314

The introduction of hybrid materials in regenerative medicine has solved some problems related to the mechanical and bioactive properties of biomaterials. Calcium phosphates and their derivatives have provided the basis for inorganic components, thanks to their good bioactivity, especially in bone regeneration. When mixed with biodegradable polymers, the result is a synergic association that mimics the composition of many tissues of the human body and, additionally, exhibits suitable mechanical properties. Together with the development of nanotechnology and new synthesis methods, hybrids offer a promising option for the development of a third or fourth generation of smart biomaterials and scaffolds to guide the regeneration of natural tissues, with an optimum efficiency/cost ratio. Their potential bioactivity, as well as other valuable features of hybrids, open promising new pathways for their use in bone regeneration and other tissue repair therapies. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the different hybrid organic-inorganic scaffolding biomaterials developed so far for regenerative therapies, especially in bone. It also looks at the potential for research into hybrid materials for other, softer tissues, which is still at an initial stage, but with very promising results.

JTD Keywords: Biodegradable polymer, Hybrid materials, Nanoparticles, Ormoglass

Penon, O., Novo, S., Duran, S., Ibanez, E., Nogues, C., Samitier, J., Duch, M., Plaza, J. A., Perez-Garcia, L., (2012). Efficient biofunctionalization of polysilicon barcodes for adhesion to the zona pellucida of mouse embryos Bioconjugate Chemistry , 23, (12), 2392-2402

Cell tracking is an emergent area in nano-biotechnology, promising the study of individual cells or the identification of populations of cultured cells. In our approach, microtools designed for extracellular tagging are prepared, because using biofunctionalized polysilicon barcodes to tag cell membranes externally avoids the inconveniences of cell internalization. The crucial covalent biofunctionalization process determining the ultimate functionality was studied in order to find the optimum conditions to link a biomolecule to a polysilicon barcode surface using a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) as the connector. Specifically, a lectin (wheat germ agglutinin, WGA) was used because of its capacity to recognize some specific carbohydrates present on the surface of most mammalian cells. Self-assembled monolayers were prepared on polysilicon surfaces including aldehyde groups as terminal functions to study the suitability of their covalent chemical bonding to WGA. Some parameters, such as the polysilicon surface roughness or the concentration of WGA, proved to be crucial for successful biofunctionalization and bioactivity. The SAMs were characterized by contact angle measurements, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LDI-TOF MS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The biofunctionalization step was also characterized by fluorescence microscopy and, in the case of barcodes, by adhesion experiments to the zona pellucida of mouse embryos. These experiments showed high barcode retention rates after 96 h of culture as well as high embryo viability to the blastocyst stage, indicating the robustness of the biofunctionalization and, therefore, the potential of these new microtools to be used for cell tagging.

JTD Keywords: Self-assembled monolayers, Wheat-germ-agglutinin, Protein immobilization strategies, Mass-spectrometry, Cell-surface, Petide, Binding, Identifications, Nanoparticles, Recognition

Urban, P., Valle-Delgado, J. J., Moles, E., Marques, J., Diez, C., Fernàndez-Busquets, X., (2012). Nanotools for the delivery of antimicrobial peptides Current Drug Targets , 13, (9), 1158-1172

Antimicrobial peptide drugs are increasingly attractive therapeutic agents as their roles in physiopathological processes are being unraveled and because the development of recombinant DNA technology has made them economically affordable in large amounts and high purity. However, due to lack of specificity regarding the target cells, difficulty in attaining them, or reduced half-lives, most current administration methods require high doses. On the other hand, reduced specificity of toxic drugs demands low concentrations to minimize undesirable side-effects, thus incurring the risk of having sublethal amounts which favour the appearance of resistant microbial strains. In this scenario, targeted delivery can fulfill the objective of achieving the intake of total quantities sufficiently low to be innocuous for the patient but that locally are high enough to be lethal for the infectious agent. One of the major advances in recent years has been the size reduction of drug carriers that have dimensions in the nanometer scale and thus are much smaller than -and capable of being internalized by- many types of cells. Among the different types of potential antimicrobial peptide-encapsulating structures reviewed here are liposomes, dendritic polymers, solid core nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, and DNA cages. These nanoparticulate systems can be functionalized with a plethora of biomolecules providing specificity of binding to particular cell types or locations; as examples of these targeting elements we will present antibodies, DNA aptamers, cell-penetrating peptides, and carbohydrates. Multifunctional Trojan horse-like nanovessels can be engineered by choosing the adequate peptide content, encapsulating structure, and targeting moiety for each particular application.

JTD Keywords: Antibodies, Aptamers, Dendrimers, Liposomes, Nanomedicine, Nanoparticles, Nanovectors, Targeting

Ivon Rodriguez-Villarreal, Angeles, Tarn, Mark D., Madden, Leigh A., Lutz, Julia B., Greenman, John, Samitier, Josep, Pamme, Nicole, (2011). Flow focussing of particles and cells based on their intrinsic properties using a simple diamagnetic repulsion setup Lab on a Chip 11, (7), 1240-1248

The continuous flow focussing and manipulation of particles and cells are important factors in microfluidic applications for performing accurate and reproducible procedures downstream. Many particle focussing methods require complex setups or channel designs that can limit the process and its applications. Here, we present diamagnetic repulsion as a simple means of focussing objects in continuous flow, based only on their intrinsic properties without the requirement of any label. Diamagnetic polystyrene particles were suspended in a paramagnetic medium and pumped through a capillary between a pair of permanent magnets, whereupon the particles were repelled by each magnet into the central axis of the capillary, thus achieving focussing. By investigating this effect, we found that the focussing was greatly enhanced with (i) increased magnetic susceptibility of the medium, (ii) reduced flow rate of the suspension, (iii) increased particle size, and (iv) increased residence time in the magnetic field. Furthermore, we applied diamagnetic repulsion to the flow focussing of living, label-free HaCaT cells.

JTD Keywords: Feeble magnetic substances, On-chip, Blood-cells, Microfluidic device, Separation, Field, Levitation, Magnetophoresis, Fractionation, Nanoparticles

Toset, J., Gomila, G., (2010). Three-dimensional manipulation of gold nanoparticles with electro-enhanced capillary forces Applied Physics Letters , 96, (4), 043117

We demonstrate the possibility to manipulate 25 nm radius gold nanoparticles in the three spatial dimensions with an atomic force microscope with the use of electroenhanced capillary forces. We show that an enhanced water-bridge can be electrostatically induced between a conducting probe and a metallic nanoparticle by the application of a voltage pulse, which is able to exert a pulling capillary force on the nanoparticle strong enough to detach it from the substrate. The nanoparticle can then be moved, attached to the probe, and placed back to the desired location on the substrate simply by contacting it.

JTD Keywords: Atomic force microscopy, Capillarity, Gold, Nanoparticles, Nanotechnology

Arteaga, O., Escudero, C., Oncins, G., El-Hachemic, Z., Llorens, J., Crusats, J., Canillas, A., Ribo, J. M., (2009). Reversible mechanical induction of optical activity in solutions of soft-matter nanophases Chemistry - An Asian Journal , 4, (11), 1687-1696

Nanophases of J-aggregates of several achiral amphiphilic porphyrins, which have thin long acicular shapes (nanoribbons), show the immediate and reversible formation of a stationary mechano-chiral state in the solution by vortex stirring, as detected by their circular dichroic signals measured by 2-modulator generallized ellipsometry. The results suggest that when a macroscopic chiral force creates supramolecular chirality, it also creates an enantiomeric excess of screw distortions, which may be detected by their excitonic absorption. An explanation on the effect of the shear flow gradients is proposed on the basis of the orientation of the rotating particles in the vortex and the size, shape, and mechanical properties of the nanoparticles.

JTD Keywords: Chirality, Circular dichroism, Nanoparticles, Selfassembly, Supramolecular chemistry

Engel, E., Michiardi, A., Navarro, M., Lacroix, D., Planell, J. A., (2008). Nanotechnology in regenerative medicine: the materials side Trends in Biotechnology , 26, (1), 39-47

Regenerative medicine is an emerging multidisciplinary field that aims to restore, maintain or enhance tissues and hence organ functions. Regeneration of tissues can be achieved by the combination of living cells, which will provide biological functionality, and materials, which act as scaffolds to support cell proliferation. Mammalian cells behave in vivo in response to the biological signals they receive from the surrounding environment, which is structured by nanometre-scaled components. Therefore, materials used in repairing the human body have to reproduce the correct signals that guide the cells towards a desirable behaviour. Nanotechnology is not only an excellent tool to produce material structures that mimic the biological ones but also holds the promise of providing efficient delivery systems. The application of nanotechnology to regenerative medicine is a wide issue and this short review will only focus on aspects of nanotechnology relevant to biomaterials science. Specifically, the fabrication of materials, such as nanoparticles and scaffolds for tissue engineering, and the nanopatterning of surfaces aimed at eliciting specific biological responses from the host tissue will be addressed.

JTD Keywords: Animals, Biocompatible Materials/ metabolism, Humans, Nanoparticles, Nanotechnology/ methods, Regenerative Medicine/ methods, Tissue Scaffolds